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📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0153, P0154, P0155, P0156
Commits:
624e0cb...d05c9ba, d05c9ba...031b526, 031b526...9ad578e, 9ad578e...4bc6405
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay- boss+ konngara+ danmaku-pattern+ waste+ rng+

📝 7 pushes to get Konngara done, according to my previous estimate? Well, how about being twice as fast, and getting the entire boss fight done in 3.5 pushes instead? So much copy-pasted code in there… without any flashy unused content, apart from four calculations with an unclear purpose. And the three strings "ANGEL", "OF", "DEATH", which were probably meant to be rendered using those giant upscaled font ROM glyphs that also display the STAGE # and HARRY UP strings? Those three strings are also part of Sariel's code, though.

On to the remaining 11 patterns then! Konngara's homing snakes, shown in the video above, are one of the more notorious parts of this battle. They occur in two patterns – one with two snakes and one with four – with all of the spawn, aim, update, and render code copy-pasted between the two. :zunpet: Three gameplay-related discoveries here:

  • The homing target is locked once the Y position of a snake's white head diamond is below 300 pixels.
  • That diamond is also the only one with collision detection…
  • …but comes with a gigantic 30×30 pixel hitbox, reduced to 30×20 while Reimu is sliding. For comparison: Reimu's regular sprite is 32×32 pixels, including transparent areas. This time, there is a clearly defined hitbox around Reimu's center pixel that the single top-left pixel can collide with. No imagination necessary, which people apparently 📝 still prefer over actually understanding an algorithm… Then again, this hitbox is still not intuitive at all, because…

    … the exact collision pixel, marked in red, is part of the diamond sprite's transparent background :tannedcirno:


This was followed by really weird aiming code for the "sprayed pellets from cup" pattern… which can only possibly have been done on purpose, but is sort of mitigated by the spraying motion anyway.
After a bunch of long if(…) {…} else if(…) {…} else if(…) {…} chains, which remain quite popular in certain corners of the game dev scene to this day, we've got the three sword slash patterns as the final notable ones. At first, it seemed as if ZUN just improvised those raw number constants involved in the pellet spawner's movement calculations to describe some sort of path that vaguely resembles the sword slash. But once I tried to express these numbers in terms of the slash animation's keyframes, it all worked out perfectly, and resulted in this:

Yup, the spawner always takes an exact path along this triangle. Sometimes, I wonder whether I should just rush this project and don't bother about naming these repeated number literals. Then I gain insights like these, and it's all worth it.


Finally, we've got Konngara's main function, which coordinates the entire fight. Third-longest function in both TH01 and all of PC-98 Touhou, only behind some player-related stuff and YuugenMagan's gigantic main function… and it's even more of a copy-pasta, making it feel not nearly as long as it is. Key insights there:

  • The fight consists of 7 phases, with the entire defeat sequence being part of the if(boss_phase == 7) {…} branch.
  • The three even-numbered phases, however, only light up the Siddhaṃ seed syllables and then progress to the next phase.
  • Odd-numbered phases are completed after passing an HP threshold or after seeing a predetermined number of patterns, whatever happens first. No possibility of skipping anything there.
  • Patterns are chosen randomly, but the available pool of patterns is limited to 3 specific "easier" patterns in phases 1 and 5, and 4 patterns in phase 3. Once Phase 7 is reached at 9 HP remaining, all 12 patterns can potentially appear. Fittingly, that's also the point where the red section of the HP bar starts.
    • Every time a pattern is chosen, the code only makes a maximum of two attempts at picking a pattern that's different from the one that Konngara just completed. Therefore, it seems entirely possible to see the same pattern twice. Calculating an actual seed to prove that is out of the scope of this project, though.
    • Due to what looks like a copy-paste mistake, the pool for the second RNG attempt in phases 5 and 7 is reduced to only the first two patterns of the respective phases? That's already quite some bias right there, and we haven't even analyzed the RNG in detail yet… :onricdennat: (For anyone interested, it's a LCG, using the Borland C/C++ parameters as shown here.)
  • The difficulty level only affects the speed and firing intervals (and thus, number) of pellets, as well as the number of lasers in the one pattern that uses them.
  • After the 📝 kuji-in defeat sequence, the fight ends in an attempted double-free of Konngara's image data. :godzun: Thankfully, the format-specific _free() functions defend against such a thing.
Seriously, 📝 line drawing was much harder to decompile.


And that's it for Konngara! First boss with not a single piece of ASM left, 30 more to go! 🎉 But wait, what about the cause behind the temporary green discoloration after leaving the Pause menu? I expected to find something on that as well, but nope, it's nothing in Konngara's code segment. We'll probably only get to figure that out near the very end of TH01's decompilation, once we get to the one function that directly calls all of the boss-specific main functions in a switch statement.

So, Sariel next? With half of a push left, I did cover Sariel's first few initialization functions, but all the sprite unblitting and HUD manipulation will need some extra attention first. The first one of these functions is related to the HUD, the stage timer, and the HARRY UP mode, whose pellet pattern I've also decompiled now.

All of this brings us past 75% PI in all games, and TH01 to under 30,000 remaining ASM instructions, leaving TH03 as the now most expensive game to be completely decompiled. Looking forward to how much more TH01's code will fall apart if you just tap it lightly… Next up: The aforementioned helper functions related to HARRY UP, drawing the HUD, and unblitting the other bosses whose sprites are a bit more animated.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0149, P0150, P0151, P0152
Commits:
e1a26bb...05e4c4a, 05e4c4a...768251d, 768251d...4d24ca5, 4d24ca5...81fc861
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, Ember2528, -Tom-, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- bullet+ animation+ score+ glitch+ jank+ waste+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ uth05win+

…or maybe not that soon, as it would have only wasted time to untangle the bullet update commits from the rest of the progress. So, here's all the bullet spawning code in TH04 and TH05 instead. I hope you're ready for this, there's a lot to talk about!

(For the sake of readability, "bullets" in this blog post refers to the white 8×8 pellets and all 16×16 bullets loaded from MIKO16.BFT, nothing else.)


But first, what was going on 📝 in 2020? Spent 4 pushes on the basic types and constants back then, still ended up confusing a couple of things, and even getting some wrong. Like how TH05's "bullet slowdown" flag actually always prevents slowdown and fires bullets at a constant speed instead. :tannedcirno: Or how "random spread" is not the best term to describe that unused bullet group type in TH04.
Or that there are two distinct ways of clearing all bullets on screen, which deserve different names:

Bullets are zapped at the end of most midboss and boss phases, and cleared everywhere else – most notably, during bombs, when losing a life, or as rewards for extends or a maximized Dream bonus. The Bonus!! points awarded for zapping bullets are calculated iteratively, so it's not trivial to give an exact formula for these. For a small number 𝑛 of bullets, it would exactly be 5𝑛³ - 10𝑛² + 15𝑛 points – or, using uth05win's (correct) recursive definition, Bonus(𝑛) = Bonus(𝑛-1) + 15𝑛² - 5𝑛 + 10. However, one of the internal step variables is capped at a different number of points for each difficulty (and game), after which the points only increase linearly. Hence, "semi-exponential".


On to TH04's bullet spawn code then, because that one can at least be decompiled. And immediately, we have to deal with a pointless distinction between regular bullets, with either a decelerating or constant velocity, and special bullets, with preset velocity changes during their lifetime. That preset has to be set somewhere, so why have separate functions? In TH04, this separation continues even down to the lowest level of functions, where values are written into the global bullet array. TH05 merges those two functions into one, but then goes too far and uses self-modifying code to save a grand total of two local variables… Luckily, the rest of its actual code is identical to TH04.

Most of the complexity in bullet spawning comes from the (thankfully shared) helper function that calculates the velocities of the individual bullets within a group. Both games handle each group type via a large switch statement, which is where TH04 shows off another Turbo C++ 4.0 optimization: If the range of case values is too sparse to be meaningfully expressed in a jump table, it usually generates a linear search through a second value table. But with the -G command-line option, it instead generates branching code for a binary search through the set of cases. 𝑂(log 𝑛) as the worst case for a switch statement in a C++ compiler from 1994… that's so cool. But still, why are the values in TH04's group type enum all over the place to begin with? :onricdennat:
Unfortunately, this optimization is pretty rare in PC-98 Touhou. It only shows up here and in a few places in TH02, compared to at least 50 switch value tables.

In all of its micro-optimized pointlessness, TH05's undecompilable version at least fixes some of TH04's redundancy. While it's still not even optimal, it's at least a decently written piece of ASM… if you take the time to understand what's going on there, because it certainly took quite a bit of that to verify that all of the things which looked like bugs or quirks were in fact correct. And that's how the code for this function ended up with 35% comments and blank lines before I could confidently call it "reverse-engineered"…
Oh well, at least it finally fixes a correctness issue from TH01 and TH04, where an invalid bullet group type would fill all remaining slots in the bullet array with identical versions of the first bullet.

Something that both games also share in these functions is an over-reliance on globals for return values or other local state. The most ridiculous example here: Tuning the speed of a bullet based on rank actually mutates the global bullet template… which ZUN then works around by adding a wrapper function around both regular and special bullet spawning, which saves the base speed before executing that function, and restores it afterward. :zunpet: Add another set of wrappers to bypass that exact tuning, and you've expanded your nice 1-function interface to 4 functions. Oh, and did I mention that TH04 pointlessly duplicates the first set of wrapper functions for 3 of the 4 difficulties, which can't even be explained with "debugging reasons"? That's 10 functions then… and probably explains why I've procrastinated this feature for so long.

At this point, I also finally stopped decompiling ZUN's original ASM just for the sake of it. All these small TH05 functions would look horribly unidiomatic, are identical to their decompiled TH04 counterparts anyway, except for some unique constant… and, in the case of TH05's rank-based speed tuning function, actually become undecompilable as soon as we want to return a C++ class to preserve the semantic meaning of the return value. Mainly, this is because Turbo C++ does not allow register pseudo-variables like _AX or _AL to be cast into class types, even if their size matches. Decompiling that function would have therefore lowered the quality of the rest of the decompiled code, in exchange for the additional maintenance and compile-time cost of another translation unit. Not worth it – and for a TH05 port, you'd already have to decompile all the rest of the bullet spawning code anyway!


The only thing in there that was still somewhat worth being decompiled was the pre-spawn clipping and collision detection function. Due to what's probably a micro-optimization mistake, the TH05 version continues to spawn a bullet even if it was spawned on top of the player. This might sound like it has a different effect on gameplay… until you realize that the player got hit in this case and will either lose a life or deathbomb, both of which will cause all on-screen bullets to be cleared anyway. So it's at most a visual glitch.

But while we're at it, can we please stop talking about hitboxes? At least in the context of TH04 and TH05 bullets. The actual collision detection is described way better as a kill delta of 8×8 pixels between the center points of the player and a bullet. You can distribute these pixels to any combination of bullet and player "hitboxes" that make up 8×8. 4×4 around both the player and bullets? 1×1 for bullets, and 8×8 for the player? All equally valid… or perhaps none of them, once you keep in mind that other entity types might have different kill deltas. With that in mind, the concept of a "hitbox" turns into just a confusing abstraction.

The same is true for the 36×44 graze box delta. For some reason, this one is not exactly around the center of a bullet, but shifted to the right by 2 pixels. So, a bullet can be grazed up to 20 pixels right of the player, but only up to 16 pixels left of the player. uth05win also spotted this… and rotated the deltas clockwise by 90°?!


Which brings us to the bullet updates… for which I still had to research a decompilation workaround, because 📝 P0148 turned out to not help at all? Instead, the solution was to lie to the compiler about the true segment distance of the popup function and declare its signature far rather than near. This allowed ZUN to save that ridiculous overhead of 1 additional far function call/return per frame, and those precious 2 bytes in the BSS segment that he didn't have to spend on a segment value. 📝 Another function that didn't have just a single declaration in a common header file… really, 📝 how were these games even built???

The function itself is among the longer ones in both games. It especially stands out in the indentation department, with 7 levels at its most indented point – and that's the minimum of what's possible without goto. Only two more notable discoveries there:

  1. Bullets are the only entity affected by Slow Mode. If the number of bullets on screen is ≥ (24 + (difficulty * 8) + rank) in TH04, or (42 + (difficulty * 8)) in TH05, Slow Mode reduces the frame rate by 33%, by waiting for one additional VSync event every two frames.
    The code also reveals a second tier, with 50% slowdown for a slightly higher number of bullets, but that conditional branch can never be executed :zunpet:
  2. Bullets must have been grazed in a previous frame before they can be collided with. (Note how this does not apply to bullets that spawned on top of the player, as explained earlier!)

Whew… When did ReC98 turn into a full-on code review?! 😅 And after all this, we're still not done with TH04 and TH05 bullets, with all the special movement types still missing. That should be less than one push though, once we get to it. Next up: Back to TH01 and Konngara! Now have fun rewriting the Touhou Wiki Gameplay pages 😛

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0140, P0141, P0142
Commits:
d985811...d856f7d, d856f7d...5afee78, 5afee78...08bc188
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], rosenrose, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ pc98+ dosbox-x+ gameplay- boss+ konngara+ danmaku-pattern+

Alright, onto Konngara! Let's quickly move the escape sequences used later in the battle to C land, and then we can immediately decompile the loading and entrance animation function together with its filenames. Might as well reverse-engineer those escape sequences while I'm at it, though – even if they aren't implemented in DOSBox-X, they're well documented in all those Japanese PDFs, so this should be no big deal…

…wait, ESC )3 switches to "graph mode"? As opposed to the default "kanji mode", which can be re-entered via ESC )0? Let's look up graph mode in the PC-9801 Programmers' Bible then…

> Kanji cannot be handled in this mode.
…and that's apparently all it has to say. Why have it then, on a platform whose main selling point is a kanji ROM, and where Shift-JIS (and, well, 7-bit ASCII) are the only native encodings? No support for graph mode in DOSBox-X either… yeah, let's take a deep dive into NEC's IO.SYS, and get to the bottom of this.

And yes, graph mode pretty much just disables Shift-JIS decoding for characters written via INT 29h, the lowest-level way of "just printing a char" on DOS, which every printf() will ultimately end up calling. Turns out there is a use for it though, which we can spot by looking at the 8×16 half-width section of font ROM:

The half-width glyphs marked in red correspond to the byte ranges from 0x80-0x9F and 0xE0-0xFF… which Shift-JIS defines as lead bytes for two-byte, full-width characters. But if we turn off Shift-JIS decoding…

Jackpot, we get those half-width characters when printing their corresponding bytes.
I've re-implemented all my findings into DOSBox-X, which will include graph mode in the upcoming 0.83.14 release. If P0140 looks a bit empty as a result, that's why – most of the immediate feature work went into DOSBox-X, not into ReC98. That's the beauty of "anything" pushes. :tannedcirno:

So, after switching to graph mode, TH01 does… one of the slowest possible memset()s over all of text RAM – one printf(" ") call for every single one of its 80×25 half-width cells – before switching back to kanji mode. What a waste of RE time…? Oh well, at least we've now got plenty of proof that these weird escape sequences actually do nothing of interest.


As for the Konngara code itself… well, it's script-like code, what can you say. Maybe minimally sloppy in some places, but ultimately harmless.
One small thing that might not be widely known though: The large, blue-green Siddhaṃ seed syllables are supposed to show up immediately, with no delay between them? Good to know. Clocking your emulator too low tends to roll them down from the top of the screen, and will certainly add a noticeable delay between the four individual images.

… Wait, but this means that ZUN could have intended this "effect". Why else would he not only put those syllables into four individual images (and therefore add at least the latency of disk I/O between them), but also show them on the foreground VRAM page, rather than on the "back buffer"?

Meanwhile, in 📝 another instance of "maybe having gone too far in a few places": Expressing distances on the playfield as fractions of its width and height, just to avoid absolute numbers? Raw numbers are bad because they're in screen space in this game. But we've already been throwing PLAYFIELD_ constants into the mix as a way of explicitly communicating screen space, and keeping raw number literals for the actual playfield coordinates is looking increasingly sloppy… I don't know, fractions really seemed like the most sensible thing to do with what we're given here. 😐


So, 2 pushes in, and we've got the loading code, the entrance animation, facial expression rendering, and the first one out of Konngara's 12 danmaku patterns. Might not sound like much, but since that first pattern involves those ◆ blue-green diamond sprites and therefore is one of the more complicated ones, it all amounts to roughly 21.6% of Konngara's code. That's 7 more pushes to get Konngara done, then? Next up though: Two pushes of website improvements.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0130, P0131
Commits:
6d69ea8...576def5, 576def5...dc9e3ee
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ pc98+ blitting+ good-code+ jank+ gameplay- boss+ rng+

50% hype! 🎉 But as usual for TH01, even that final set of functions shared between all bosses had to consume two pushes rather than one…

First up, in the ongoing series "Things that TH01 draws to the PC-98 graphics layer that really should have been drawn to the text layer instead": The boss HP bar. Oh well, using the graphics layer at least made it possible to have this half-red, half-white pattern for the middle section.
This one pattern is drawn by making surprisingly good use of the GRCG. So far, we've only seen it used for fast monochrome drawing:

// Setting up fast drawing using color #9 (1001 in binary)
grcg_setmode(GC_RMW);
outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 0: (B): (********)
outportb(0x7E, 0x00); // Plane 1: (R): (        )
outportb(0x7E, 0x00); // Plane 2: (G): (        )
outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 3: (E): (********)

// Write a checkerboard pattern (* * * * ) in color #9 to the top-left corner,
// with transparent blanks. Requires only 1 VRAM write to a single bitplane:
// The GRCG automatically writes to the correct bitplanes, as specified above
*(uint8_t *)(MK_FP(0xA800, 0)) = 0xAA;
But since this is actually an 8-pixel tile register, we can set any 8-pixel pattern for any bitplane. This way, we can get different colors for every one of the 8 pixels, with still just a single VRAM write of the alpha mask to a single bitplane:
grcg_setmode(GC_RMW); //  Final color: (A7A7A7A7)
outportb(0x7E, 0x55); // Plane 0: (B): ( * * * *)
outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 1: (R): (********)
outportb(0x7E, 0x55); // Plane 2: (G): ( * * * *)
outportb(0x7E, 0xAA); // Plane 3: (E): (* * * * )
And I thought TH01 only suffered the drawbacks of PC-98 hardware, making so little use of its actual features that it's perhaps not fair to even call it "a PC-98 game"… Still, I'd say that "bad PC-98 port of an idea" describes it best.

However, after that tiny flash of brilliance, the surrounding HP rendering code goes right back to being the typical sort of confusing TH01 jank. There's only a single function for the three distinct jobs of

  • incrementing HP during the boss entrance animation,
  • decrementing HP if hit by the Orb, and
  • redrawing the entire bar, because it's still all in VRAM, and Sariel wants different backgrounds,
with magic numbers to select between all of these.

VRAM of course also means that the backgrounds behind the individual hit points have to be stored, so that they can be unblitted later as the boss is losing HP. That's no big deal though, right? Just allocate some memory, copy what's initially in VRAM, then blit it back later using your foundational set of blitting funct– oh, wait, TH01 doesn't have this sort of thing, right :tannedcirno: The closest thing, 📝 once again, are the .PTN functions. And so, the game ends up handling these 8×16 background sprites with 16×16 wrappers around functions for 32×32 sprites. :zunpet: That's quite the recipe for confusion, especially since ZUN preferred copy-pasting the necessary ridiculous arithmetic expressions for calculating positions, .PTN sprite IDs, and the ID of the 16×16 quarter inside the 32×32 sprite, instead of just writing simple helper functions. He did manage to make the result mostly bug-free this time around, though! There's one minor hit point discoloration bug if the red-white or white sections start at an odd number of hit points, but that's never the case for any of the original 7 bosses.
The remaining sloppiness is ultimately inconsequential as well: The game always backs up twice the number of hit point backgrounds, and thus uses twice the amount of memory actually required. Also, this self-restriction of only unblitting 16×16 pixels at a time requires any remaining odd hit point at the last position to, of course, be rendered again :onricdennat:


After stumbling over the weakest imaginable random number generator, we finally arrive at the shared boss↔orb collision handling function, the final blocker among the final blockers. This function takes a whopping 12 parameters, 3 of them being references to int values, some of which are duplicated for every one of the 7 bosses, with no generic boss struct anywhere. 📝 Previously, I speculated that YuugenMagan might have been the first boss to be programmed for TH01. With all these variables though, there is some new evidence that SinGyoku might have been the first one after all: It's the only boss to use its own HP and phase frame variables, with the other bosses sharing the same two globals.

While this function only handles the response to a boss↔orb collision, it still does way too much to describe it briefly. Took me quite a while to frame it in terms of invincibility (which is the main impact of all of this that can be observed in gameplay code). That made at least some sort of sense, considering the other usages of the variables passed as references to that function. Turns out that YuugenMagan, Kikuri, and Elis abuse what's meant to be the "invincibility frame" variable as a frame counter for some of their animations 🙄
Oh well, the game at least doesn't call the collision handling function during those, so "invincibility frame" is technically still a correct variable name there.


And that's it! We're finally ready to start with Konngara, in 2021. I've been waiting quite a while for this, as all this high-level boss code is very likely to speed up TH01 progress quite a bit. Next up though: Closing out 2020 with more of the technical debt in the other games.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0128, P0129
Commits:
dc65b59...dde36f7, dde36f7...f4c2e45
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ gameplay- card-flipping+ waste+ hidden-content+ bug+

So, only one card-flipping function missing, and then we can start decompiling TH01's two final bosses? Unfortunately, that had to be the one big function that initializes and renders all gameplay objects. #17 on the list of longest functions in all of PC-98 Touhou, requiring two pushes to fully understand what's going on there… and then it immediately returns for all "boss" stages whose number is divisible by 5, yet is still called during Sariel's and Konngara's initialization 🤦

Oh well. This also involved the final file format we hadn't looked at yet – the STAGE?.DAT files that describe the layout for all stages within a single 5-stage scene. Which, for a change is a very well-designed form– no, of course it's completely weird, what did you expect? Development must have looked somewhat like this:

  • Weirdness #1: :zunpet: "Hm, the stage format should include the file names for the background graphics and music… or should it?" And so, the 22-byte header still references some music and background files that aren't part of the final game. The game doesn't use anything from there, and instead derives those file names from the scene ID.
    That's probably nothing new to anyone who has ever looked at TH01's data files. In a slightly more interesting discovery though, seeing the+ 📝 .GRF extension, in some of the file names that are short enough to not cut it off, confirms that .GRF was initially used for background images. Probably before ZUN learned about .PI, and how it achieves better compression than his own per-bitplane RLE approach?
  • Weirdness #2: :zunpet: "Hm, I might want to put obstacles on top of cards?" You'd probably expect this format to contain one single array for every stage, describing which object to place on every 32×32 tile, if any. Well, the real format uses two arrays: One for the cards, and a combined one for all "obstacles" – bumpers, bumper bars, turrets, and portals. However, none of the card-flipping stages in the final game come with any such overlaps. That's quite unfortunate, as it would have made for some quite interesting level designs:

    As you can see, the final version of the blitting code was not written with such overlaps in mind either, blitting the cards on top of all the obstacles, and not the other way round.

  • Weirdness #3: :zunpet: "In contrast to obstacles, of which there are multiple types, cards only really need 1 bit. Time for some bit twiddling!" Not the worst idea, given that the 640×336 playfield can fit 20×10 cards, which would fit exactly into 25 bytes if you use a single bit to indicate card or no card. But for whatever reason, ZUN only stored 4 card bits per byte, leaving the other 4 bits unused, and needlessly blowing up that array to 50 bytes. 🤷

    Oh, and did I mention that the contents of the STAGE?.DAT files are loaded into the main data segment, even though the game immediately parses them into something more conveniently accessible? That's another 1250 bytes of memory wasted for no reason…

  • Weirdness #4: :zunpet: "Hm, how about requiring the player to flip some of the cards multiple times? But I've already written all this bit twiddling code to store 4 cards in 1 byte. And if cards should need anywhere from 1 to 4 flips, that would need at least 2 more bits, which won't fit into the unused 4 bits either…" This feature must have come later, because the final game uses 3 "obstacle" type IDs to act as a flip count modifier for a card at the same relative array position. Complete with lookup code to find the actual card index these modifiers belong to, and ridiculous switch statements to not include those non-obstacles in the game's internal obstacle array. :tannedcirno:

With all that, it's almost not worth mentioning how there are 12 turret types, which only differ in which hardcoded pellet group they fire at a hardcoded interval of either 100 or 200 frames, and that they're all explicitly spelled out in every single switch statement. Or how the layout of the internal card and obstacle SoA classes is quite disjointed. So here's the new ZUN bugs you've probably already been expecting!


Cards and obstacles are blitted to both VRAM pages. This way, any other entities moving on top of them can simply be unblitted by restoring pixels from VRAM page 1, without requiring the stationary objects to be redrawn from main memory. Obviously, the backgrounds behind the cards have to be stored somewhere, since the player can remove them. For faster transitions between stages of a scene, ZUN chose to store the backgrounds behind obstacles as well. This way, the background image really only needs to be blitted for the first stage in a scene.

All that memory for the object backgrounds adds up quite a bit though. ZUN actually made the correct choice here and picked a memory allocation function that can return more than the 64 KiB of a single x86 Real Mode segment. He then accesses the individual backgrounds via regular array subscripts… and that's where the bug lies, because he stores the returned address in a regular far pointer rather than a huge one. This way, the game still can only display a total of 102 objects (i. e., cards and obstacles combined) per stage, without any unblitting glitches.
What a shame, that limit could have been 127 if ZUN didn't needlessly allocate memory for alpha planes when backing up VRAM content. :onricdennat:

And since array subscripts on far pointers wrap around after 64 KiB, trying to save the background of the 103rd object is guaranteed to corrupt the memory block header at the beginning of the returned segment. :zunpet:. When TH01 runs in test mode, it correctly reports a corrupted heap in this case.


Finally, some unused content! Upon discovering TH01's debug mode, probably everyone tried to access Stage 21, just to see what happens, and indeed landed in an actual stage, with a black background and a weird color palette. Turns out that ZUN did ship an unused scene in SCENE7.DAT, which is exactly was loaded there.
Unfortunately, it's easy to believe that this is just garbage data (as I initially did): At the beginning of "Stage 22", the game seems to enter an infinite loop somewhere during the flip-in animation.

Well, we've had a heap overflow above, and the cause here is nothing but a stack buffer overflow – a perhaps more modern kind of classic C bug, given its prevalence in the Windows Touhou games. Explained in a few lines of code:

void stageobjs_init_and_render()
{
	int card_animation_frames[50]; // even though there can be up to 200?!
	int total_frames = 0;

	(code that would end up resetting total_frames if it ever tried to reset
	card_animation_frames[50]…)
}
The number of cards in "Stage 22"? 76. There you have it.

But of course, it's trivial to disable this animation and fix these stage transitions. So here they are, Stages 21 to 24, as shipped with the game in STAGE7.DAT:


Wow, what a mess. All that was just a bit too much to be covered in two pushes… Next up, assuming the current subscriptions: Taking a vacation with one smaller TH01 push, covering some smaller functions here and there to ensure some uninterrupted Konngara progress later on.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0122
Commits:
164591f...4406c3d
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ blitting+ waste+ jank+ gameplay- laser+

This time around, laser is 📝 actually not difficult, with TH01's shootout laser class being simple enough to nicely fit into a single push. All other stationary lasers (as used by YuugenMagan, for example) don't even use a class, and are simply treated as regular lines with collision detection.

But of course, the shootout lasers also come with the typical share of TH01 jank we've all come to expect by now. This time, it already starts with the hardcoded sprite data:

A shootout laser can have a width from 1 to 8 pixels, so ZUN stored a separate 16×1 sprite with a line for each possible width (left-to-right). Then, he shifted all of these sprites 1 pixel to the right for all of the 8 possible start positions within a planar VRAM byte (top-to-bottom). Because… doing that bit shift programmatically is way too expensive, so let's pre-shift at compile time, and use 16× the memory per sprite? :tannedcirno:

Since a bunch of other sprite sheets need to be pre-shifted as well (this is the 5th one we've found so far), our sprite converter has a feature to automatically generate those pre-shifted variations. This way, we can abstract away that implementation detail and leave modders with .BMP files that still only contain a single version of each sprite. But, uh…, wait, in this sprite sheet, the second row for 1-pixel lasers is accidentally shifted right by one more pixel that it should have been?! Which means that

  1. we can't use the auto-preshift feature here, and have to store this weird-looking (and quite frankly, completely unnecessary) sprite sheet in its entirety
  2. ZUN did, at least during TH01's development, not have a sprite converter, and directly hardcoded these dot patterns in the C++ code :zunpet:


The waste continues with the class itself. 69 bytes, with 22 bytes outright unused, and 11 not really necessary. As for actual innovations though, we've got 📝 another 32-bit fixed-point type, this time actually using 8 bits for the fractional part. Therefore, the ray position is tracked to the 1/256th of a pixel, using the full precision of master.lib's 8-bit sin() and cos() lookup tables.
Unblitting is also remarkably efficient: It's only done once the laser stopped extending and started moving, and only for the exact pixels at the start of the ray that the laser traveled by in a single frame. If only the ray part was also rendered as efficiently – it's fully blitted every frame, right next to the collision detection for each row of the ray.


With a public interface of two functions (spawn, and update / collide / unblit / render), that's superficially all there is to lasers in this game. There's another (apparently inlined) function though, to both reset and, uh, "fully unblit" all lasers at the end of every boss fight… except that it fails hilariously at doing the latter, and ends up effectively unblitting random 32-pixel line segments, due to ZUN confusing both the coordinates and the parameter types for the line unblitting function. :zunpet:
A while ago, I was asked about this crash that tends to happen when defeating Elis. And while you can clearly see the random unblitted line segments that are missing from the sprites, I don't quite think we've found the cause for the crash, since the 📝 line unblitting function used there does clip its coordinates to the VRAM range.

Next up: The final piece of image format code in TH01, covering Reimu's sprites!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0111, P0112
Commits:
8b5c146...4ef4c9e, 4ef4c9e...e447a2d
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ bomb+ boss+ ex-alice+ animation+ glitch+ jank+

Only one newly ordered push since I've reopened the store? Great, that's all the justification I needed for the extended maintenance delay that was part of these two pushes 😛

Having to write comments to explain whether coordinates are relative to the top-left corner of the screen or the top-left corner of the playfield has finally become old. So, I introduced distinct types for all the coordinate systems we typically encounter, applying them to all code decompiled so far. Note how the planar nature of PC-98 VRAM meant that X and Y coordinates also had to be different from each other. On the X side, there's mainly the distinction between the [0; 640] screen space and the corresponding [0; 80] VRAM byte space. On the Y side, we also have the [0; 400] screen space, but the visible area of VRAM might be limited to [0; 200] when running in the PC-98's line-doubled 640×200 mode. A VRAM Y coordinate also always implies an added offset for vertical scrolling.
During all of the code reconstruction, these types can only have a documenting purpose. Turning them into anything more than just typedefs to int, in order to define conversion operators between them, simply won't recompile into identical binaries. Modding and porting projects, however, now have a nice foundation for doing just that, and can entirely lift coordinate system transformations into the type system, without having to proofread all the meaningless int declarations themselves.


So, what was left in terms of memory references? EX-Alice's fire waves were our final unknown entity that can collide with the player. Decently implemented, with little to say about them.

That left the bomb animation structures as the one big remaining PI blocker. They started out nice and simple in TH04, with a small 6-byte star animation structure used for both Reimu and Marisa. TH05, however, gave each character her own animation… and what the hell is going on with Reimu's blue stars there? Nope, not going to figure this out on ASM level.

A decompilation first required some more bomb-related variables to be named though. Since this was part of a generic RE push, it made sense to do this in all 5 games… which then led to nice PI gains in anything but TH05. :tannedcirno: Most notably, we now got the "pulling all items to player" flag in TH04 and TH05, which is actually separate from bombing. The obvious cheat mod is left as an exercise to the reader.


So, TH05 bomb animations. Just like the 📝 custom entity types of this game, all 4 characters share the same memory, with the superficially same 10-byte structure.
But let's just look at the very first field. Seen from a low level, it's a simple struct { int x, y; } pos, storing the current position of the character-specific bomb animation entity. But all 4 characters use this field differently:

  • For Reimu's blue stars, it's the top-left position of each star, in the 12.4 fixed-point format. But unlike the vast majority of these values in TH04 and TH05, it's relative to the top-left corner of the screen, not the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel screen_x, screen_y; } topleft.
  • For Marisa's lasers, it's the center of each circle, as a regular 12.4 fixed-point coordinate, relative to the top-left corner of the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel x, y; } center.
  • For Mima's shrinking circles, it's the center of each circle in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } center.
  • For Yuuka's spinning heart, it's the top-left corner in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } topleft.
    And yes, singular. The game is actually smart enough to only store a single heart, and then create the rest of the circle on the fly. (If it were even smarter, it wouldn't even use this structure member, but oh well.)
Therefore, I decompiled it as 4 separate structures once again, bundled into an union of arrays.

As for Reimu… yup, that's some pointer arithmetic straight out of Jigoku* for setting and updating the positions of the falling star trails. :zunpet: While that certainly required several comments to wrap my head around the current array positions, the one "bug" in all this arithmetic luckily has no effect on the game.
There is a small glitch with the growing circles, though. They are spawned at the end of the loop, with their position taken from the star pointer… but after that pointer has already been incremented. On the last loop iteration, this leads to an out-of-bounds structure access, with the position taken from some unknown EX-Alice data, which is 0 during most of the game. If you look at the animation, you can easily spot these bugged circles, consistently growing from the top-left corner (0, 0) of the playfield:


After all that, there was barely enough remaining time to filter out and label the final few memory references. But now, TH05's MAIN.EXE is technically position-independent! 🎉 -Tom- is going to work on a pretty extensive demo of this unprecedented level of efficient Touhou game modding. For a more impactful effect of both the 100% PI mark and that demo, I'll be delaying the push covering the remaining false positives in that binary until that demo is done. I've accumulated a pretty huge backlog of minor maintenance issues by now…
Next up though: The first part of the long-awaited build system improvements. I've finally come up with a way of sanely accelerating the 32-bit build part on most setups you could possibly want to build ReC98 on, without making the building experience worse for the other few setups.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0109
Commits:
dcf4e2c...2c7d86b
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- bullet+ micro-optimization+ glitch+ uth05win+ tasm+

Back to TH05! Thanks to the good funding situation, I can strike a nice balance between getting TH05 position-independent as quickly as possible, and properly reverse-engineering some missing important parts of the game. Once 100% PI will get the attention of modders, the code will then be in better shape, and a bit more usable than if I just rushed that goal.

By now, I'm apparently also pretty spoiled by TH01's immediate decompilability, after having worked on that game for so long. Reverse-engineering in ASM land is pretty annoying, after all, since it basically boils down to meticulously editing a piece of ASM into something I can confidently call "reverse-engineered". Most of the time, simply decompiling that piece of code would take just a little bit longer, but be massively more useful. So, I immediately tried decompiling with TH05… and it just worked, at every place I tried!? Whatever the issue was that made 📝 segment splitting so annoying at my first attempt, I seem to have completely solved it in the meantime. 🤷 So yeah, backers can now request pretty much any part of TH04 and TH05 to be decompiled immediately, with no additional segment splitting cost.

(Protip for everyone interested in starting their own ReC project: Just declare one segment per function, right from the start, then group them together to restore the original code segmentation…)


Except that TH05 then just throws more of its infamous micro-optimized and undecompilable ASM at you. 🙄 This push covered the function that adjusts the bullet group template based on rank and the selected difficulty, called every time such a group is configured. Which, just like pretty much all of TH05's bullet spawning code, is one of those undecompilable functions. If C allowed labels of other functions as goto targets, it might have been decompilable into something useful to modders… maybe. But like this, there's no point in even trying.

This is such a terrible idea from a software architecture point of view, I can't even. Because now, you suddenly have to mirror your C++ declarations in ASM land, and keep them in sync with each other. I'm always happy when I get to delete an ASM declaration from the codebase once I've decompiled all the instances where it was referenced. But for TH05, we now have to keep those declarations around forever. 😕 And all that for a performance increase you probably couldn't even measure. Oh well, pulling off Galaxy Brain-level ASM optimizations is kind of fun if you don't have portability plans… I guess?

If I started a full fangame mod of a PC-98 Touhou game, I'd base it on TH04 rather than TH05, and backport selective features from TH05 as needed. Just because it was released later doesn't make it better, and this is by far not the only one of ZUN's micro-optimizations that just went way too far.

Dropping down to ASM also makes it easier to introduce weird quirks. Decompiled, one of TH05's tuning conditions for stack groups on Easy Mode would look something like:

case BP_STACK:
	// […]
	if(spread_angle_delta >= 2) {
		stack_bullet_count--;
	}
The fields of the bullet group template aren't typically reset when setting up a new group. So, spread_angle_delta in the context of a stack group effectively refers to "the delta angle of the last spread group that was fired before this stack – whenever that was". uth05win also spotted this quirk, considered it a bug, and wrote fanfiction by changing spread_angle_delta to stack_bullet_count.
As usual for functions that occur in more than one game, I also decompiled the TH04 bullet group tuning function, and it's perfectly sane, with no such quirks.


In the more PI-focused parts of this push, we got the TH05-exclusive smooth boss movement functions, for flying randomly or towards a given point. Pretty unspectacular for the most part, but we've got yet another uth05win inconsistency in the latter one. Once the Y coordinate gets close enough to the target point, it actually speeds up twice as much as the X coordinate would, whereas uth05win used the same speedup factors for both. This might make uth05win a couple of frames slower in all boss fights from Stage 3 on. Hard to measure though – and boss movement partly depends on RNG anyway.


Next up: Shinki's background animations – which are actually the single biggest source of position dependence left in TH05.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0099, P0100, P0101, P0102
Commits:
1799d67...1b25830, 1b25830...ceb81db, ceb81db...c11a956, c11a956...b60f38d
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay- bullet+ jank+ contribution-ideas+ bug+ boss+ elis+ kikuri+ sariel+ konngara+

Well, make that three days. Trying to figure out all the details behind the sprite flickering was absolutely dreadful…
It started out easy enough, though. Unsurprisingly, TH01 had a quite limited pellet system compared to TH04 and TH05:

  • The cap is 100, rather than 240 in TH04 or 180 in TH05.
  • Only 6 special motion functions (with one of them broken and unused) instead of 10. This is where you find the code that generates SinGyoku's chase pellets, Kikuri's small spinning multi-pellet circles, and Konngara's rain pellets that bounce down from the top of the playfield.
  • A tiny selection of preconfigured multi-pellet groups. Rather than TH04's and TH05's freely configurable n-way spreads, stacks, and rings, TH01 only provides abstractions for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5- way spreads (yup, no 6-way or beyond), with a fixed narrow or wide angle between the individual pellets. The resulting pellets are also hardcoded to linear motion, and can't use the special motion functions. Maybe not the best code, but still kind of cute, since the generated groups do follow a clear logic.

As expected from TH01, the code comes with its fair share of smaller, insignificant ZUN bugs and oversights. As you would also expect though, the sprite flickering points to the biggest and most consequential flaw in all of this.


Apparently, it started with ZUN getting the impression that it's only possible to use the PC-98 EGC for fast blitting of all 4 bitplanes in one CPU instruction if you blit 16 horizontal pixels (= 2 bytes) at a time. Consequently, he only wrote one function for EGC-accelerated sprite unblitting, which can only operate on a "grid" of 16×1 tiles in VRAM. But wait, pellets are not only just 8×8, but can also be placed at any unaligned X position…

… yet the game still insists on using this 16-dot-aligned function to unblit pellets, forcing itself into using a super sloppy 16×8 rectangle for the job. 🤦 ZUN then tried to mitigate the resulting flickering in two hilarious ways that just make it worse:

  1. An… "interlaced rendering" mode? This one's activated for all Stage 15 and 20 fights, and separates pellets into two halves that are rendered on alternating frames. Collision detection with the Yin-Yang Orb and the player is only done for the visible half, but collision detection with player shots is still done for all pellets every frame, as are motion updates – so that pellets don't end up moving half as fast as they should.
    So yeah, your eyes weren't deceiving you. The game does effectively drop its perceived frame rate in the Elis, Kikuri, Sariel, and Konngara fights, and it does so deliberately.
  2. 📝 Just like player shots, pellets are also unblitted, moved, and rendered in a single function. Thanks to the 16×8 rectangle, there's now the (completely unnecessary) possibility of accidentally unblitting parts of a sprite that was previously drawn into the 8 pixels right of a pellet. And this is where ZUN went full :tannedcirno: and went "oh, I know, let's test the entire 16 pixels, and in case we got an entity there, we simply make the pellet invisible for this frame! Then we don't even have to unblit it later!" :zunpet:

    Except that this is only done for the first 3 elements of the player shot array…?! Which don't even necessarily have to contain the 3 shots fired last. It's not done for the player sprite, the Orb, or, heck, other pellets that come earlier in the pellet array. (At least we avoided going 𝑂(𝑛²) there?)

    Actually, and I'm only realizing this now as I type this blog post: This test is done even if the shots at those array elements aren't active. So, pellets tend to be made invisible based on comparisons with garbage data. :onricdennat:

    And then you notice that the player shot unblit​/​move​/​render function is actually only ever called from the pellet unblit​/​move​/​render function on the one global instance of the player shot manager class, after pellets were unblitted. So, we end up with a sequence of

    Pellet unblit → Pellet move → Shot unblit → Shot move → Shot render → Pellet render

    which means that we can't ever unblit a previously rendered shot with a pellet. Sure, as terrible as this one function call is from a software architecture perspective, it was enough to fix this issue. Yet we don't even get the intended positive effect, and walk away with pellets that are made temporarily invisible for no reason at all. So, uh, maybe it all just was an attempt at increasing the ramerate on lower spec PC-98 models?

Yup, that's it, we've found the most stupid piece of code in this game, period. It'll be hard to top this.


I'm confident that it's possible to turn TH01 into a well-written, fluid PC-98 game, with no flickering, and no perceived lag, once it's position-independent. With some more in-depth knowledge and documentation on the EGC (remember, there's still 📝 this one TH03 push waiting to be funded), you might even be able to continue using that piece of blitter hardware. And no, you certainly won't need ASM micro-optimizations – just a bit of knowledge about which optimizations Turbo C++ does on its own, and what you'd have to improve in your own code. It'd be very hard to write worse code than what you find in TH01 itself.

(Godbolt for Turbo C++ 4.0J when? Seriously though, that would 📝 also be a great project for outside contributors!)


Oh well. In contrast to TH04 and TH05, where 4 pushes only covered all the involved data types, they were enough to completely cover all of the pellet code in TH01. Everything's already decompiled, and we never have to look at it again. 😌 And with that, TH01 has also gone from by far the least RE'd to the most RE'd game within ReC98, in just half a year! 🎉
Still, that was enough TH01 game logic for a while. :tannedcirno: Next up: Making up for the delay with some more relaxing and easy pieces of TH01 code, that hopefully make just a bit more sense than all this garbage. More image formats, mainly.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0096, P0097, P0098
Commits:
8ddb778...8283c5e, 8283c5e...600f036, 600f036...ad06748
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ pc98+ blitting+ gameplay- player+ shot+ jank+ mod+ tcc+

So, let's finally look at some TH01 gameplay structures! The obvious choices here are player shots and pellets, which are conveniently located in the last code segment. Covering these would therefore also help in transferring some first bits of data in REIIDEN.EXE from ASM land to C land. (Splitting the data segment would still be quite annoying.) Player shots are immediately at the beginning…

…but wait, these are drawn as transparent sprites loaded from .PTN files. Guess we first have to spend a push on 📝 Part 2 of this format.
Hm, 4 functions for alpha-masked blitting and unblitting of both 16×16 and 32×32 .PTN sprites that align the X coordinate to a multiple of 8 (remember, the PC-98 uses a planar VRAM memory layout, where 8 pixels correspond to a byte), but only one function that supports unaligned blitting to any X coordinate, and only for 16×16 sprites? Which is only called twice? And doesn't come with a corresponding unblitting function? :thonk:

Yeah, "unblitting". TH01 isn't double-buffered, and uses the PC-98's second VRAM page exclusively to store a stage's background and static sprites. Since the PC-98 has no hardware sprites, all you can do is write pixels into VRAM, and any animated sprite needs to be manually removed from VRAM at the beginning of each frame. Not using double-buffering theoretically allows TH01 to simply copy back all 128 KB of VRAM once per frame to do this. :tannedcirno: But that would be pretty wasteful, so TH01 just looks at all animated sprites, and selectively copies only their occupied pixels from the second to the first VRAM page.


Alright, player shot class methods… oh, wait, the collision functions directly act on the Yin-Yang Orb, so we first have to spend a push on that one. And that's where the impression we got from the .PTN functions is confirmed: The orb is, in fact, only ever displayed at byte-aligned X coordinates, divisible by 8. It's only thanks to the constant spinning that its movement appears at least somewhat smooth.
This is purely a rendering issue; internally, its position is tracked at pixel precision. Sadly, smooth orb rendering at any unaligned X coordinate wouldn't be that trivial of a mod, because well, the necessary functions for unaligned blitting and unblitting of 32×32 sprites don't exist in TH01's code. Then again, there's so much potential for optimization in this code, so it might be very possible to squeeze those additional two functions into the same C++ translation unit, even without position independence…

More importantly though, this was the right time to decompile the core functions controlling the orb physics – probably the highlight in these three pushes for most people.
Well, "physics". The X velocity is restricted to the 5 discrete states of -8, -4, 0, 4, and 8, and gravity is applied by simply adding 1 to the Y velocity every 5 frames :zunpet: No wonder that this can easily lead to situations in which the orb infinitely bounces from the ground.
At least fangame authors now have a reference of how ZUN did it originally, because really, this bad approximation of physics had to have been written that way on purpose. But hey, it uses 64-bit floating-point variables! :onricdennat:

…sometimes at least, and quite randomly. This was also where I had to learn about Turbo C++'s floating-point code generation, and how rigorously it defines the order of instructions when mixing double and float variables in arithmetic or conditional expressions. This meant that I could only get ZUN's original instruction order by using literal constants instead of variables, which is impossible right now without somehow splitting the data segment. In the end, I had to resort to spelling out ⅔ of one function, and one conditional branch of another, in inline ASM. 😕 If ZUN had just written 16.0 instead of 16.0f there, I would have saved quite some hours of my life trying to decompile this correctly…

To sort of make up for the slowdown in progress, here's the TH01 orb physics debug mod I made to properly understand them: 2020-06-13-TH01OrbPhysicsDebug.zip To use it, simply replace REIIDEN.EXE, and run the game in debug mode, via game d on the DOS prompt.
Its code might also serve as an example of how to achieve this sort of thing without position independence.


Alright, now it's time for player shots though. Yeah, sure, they don't move horizontally, so it's not too bad that those are also always rendered at byte-aligned positions. But, uh… why does this code only use the 16×16 alpha-masked unblitting function for decaying shots, and just sloppily unblits an entire 16×16 square everywhere else?

The worst part though: Unblitting, moving, and rendering player shots is done in a single function, in that order. And that's exactly where TH01's sprite flickering comes from. Since different types of sprites are free to overlap each other, you'd have to first unblit all types, then move all types, and then render all types, as done in later PC-98 Touhou games. If you do these three steps per-type instead, you will unblit sprites of other types that have been rendered before… and therefore end up with flicker.
Oh, and finally, ZUN also added an additional sloppy 16×16 square unblit call if a shot collides with a pellet or a boss, for some guaranteed flicker. Sigh.


And that's ⅓ of all ZUN code in TH01 decompiled! Next up: Pellets!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0088, P0089
Commits:
97ce7b7...da6b856, da6b856...90252cc
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-, [Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- enemy+ hud+ animation+ portability+

As expected, we've now got the TH04 and TH05 stage enemy structure, finishing position independence for all big entity types. This one was quite straightfoward, as the .STD scripting system is pretty simple.

Its most interesting aspect can be found in the way timing is handled. In Windows Touhou, all .ECL script instructions come with a frame field that defines when they are executed. In TH04's and TH05's .STD scripts, on the other hand, it's up to each individual instruction to add a frame time parameter, anywhere in its parameter list. This frame time defines for how long this instruction should be repeatedly executed, before it manually advances the instruction pointer to the next one. From what I've seen so far, these instruction typically apply their effect on the first frame they run on, and then do nothing for the remaining frames.
Oh, and you can't nest the LOOP instruction, since the enemy structure only stores one single counter for the current loop iteration.

Just from the structure, the only innovation introduced by TH05 seems to have been enemy subtypes. These can be used to parametrize scripts via conditional jumps based on this value, as a first attempt at cutting down the need to duplicate entire scripts for similar enemy behavior. And thanks to TH05's favorable segment layout, this game's version of the .STD enemy script interpreter is even immediately ready for decompilation, in one single future push.

As far as I can tell, that now only leaves

  • .MPN file loading
  • player bomb animations
  • some structures specific to the Shinki and EX-Alice battles
  • plus some smaller things I've missed over the years
until TH05's MAIN.EXE is completely position-independent.
Which, however, won't be all it needs for that 100% PI rating on the front page. And with that many false positives, it's quite easy to get lost with immediately reverse-engineering everything around them. This time, the rendering of the text dissolve circles, used for the stage and BGM title popups, caught my eye… and since the high-level code to handle all of that was near the end of a segment in both TH04 and TH05, I just decided to immediately decompile it all. Like, how hard could it possibly be? Sure, it needed another segment split, which was a bit harder due to all the existing ASM referencing code in that segment, but certainly not impossible…

Oh wait, this code depends on 9 other sets of identifiers that haven't been declared in C land before, some of which require vast reorganizations to bring them up to current consistency standards. Whoops! Good thing that this is the part of the project I'm still offering for free…
Among the referenced functions was tiles_invalidate_around(), which marks the stage background tiles within a rectangular area to be redrawn this frame. And this one must have had the hardest function signature to figure out in all of PC-98 Touhou, because it actually seems impossible. Looking at all the ways the game passes the center coordinate to this function, we have

  1. X and Y as 16-bit integer literals, merged into a single PUSH of a 32-bit immediate
  2. X and Y calculated and pushed independently from each other
  3. by-value copies of entire Point instances
Any single declaration would only lead to at most two of the three cases generating the original instructions. No way around separately declaring the function in every translation unit then, with the correct parameter list for the respective calls. That's how ZUN must have also written it.

Oh well, we would have needed to do all of this some time. At least there were quite a bit of insights to be gained from the actual decompilation, where using const references actually made it possible to turn quite a number of potentially ugly macros into wholesome inline functions.

But still, TH04 and TH05 will come out of ReC98's decompilation as one big mess. A lot of further manual decompilation and refactoring, beyond the limits of the original binary, would be needed to make these games portable to any non-PC-98, non-x86 architecture.
And yes, that includes IBM-compatible DOS – which, for some reason, a number of people see as the obvious choice for a first system to port PC-98 Touhou to. This will barely be easier. Sure, you'll save the effort of decompiling all the remaining original ASM. But even with master.lib's MASTER_DOSV setting, these games still very much rely on PC-98 hardware, with corresponding assumptions all over ZUN's code. You will need to provide abstractions for the PC-98's superimposed text mode, the gaiji, and planar 4-bit color access in general, exchanging the use of the PC-98's GRCG and EGC blitter chips with something else. At that point, you might as well port the game to one generic 640×400 framebuffer and away from the constraints of DOS, resulting in that Doom source code-like situation which made that game easily portable to every architecture to begin with. But ZUN just wasn't a John Carmack, sorry.

Or what do I know. I've never programmed for IBM-compatible DOS, but maybe ReC98's audience does include someone who is intimately familiar with IBM-compatible DOS so that the constraints aren't much of an issue for them? But even then, 16-bit Windows would make much more sense as a first porting target if you don't want to bother with that undecompilable ASM.

At least I won't have to look at TH04 and TH05 for quite a while now. :tannedcirno: The delivery delays have made it obvious that my life has become pretty busy again, probably until September. With a total of 9 TH01 pushes from monthly subscriptions now waiting in the backlog, the shop will stay closed until I've caught up with most of these. Which I'm quite hyped for!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0086, P0087
Commits:
54ee99b...24b96cd, 24b96cd...97ce7b7
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- animation+ hud+ blitting+ boss+ yuuka-6+

Alright, the score popup numbers shown when collecting items or defeating (mid)bosses. The second-to-last remaining big entity type in TH05… with quite some PI false positives in the memory range occupied by its data. Good thing I still got some outstanding generic RE pushes that haven't been claimed for anything more specific in over a month! These conveniently allowed me to RE most of these functions right away, the right way.

Most of the false positives were boss HP values, passed to a "boss phase end" function which sets the HP value at which the next phase should end. Stage 6 Yuuka, Mugetsu, and EX-Alice have their own copies of this function, in which they also reset certain boss-specific global variables. Since I always like to cover all varieties of such duplicated functions at once, it made sense to reverse-engineer all the involved variables while I was at it… and that's why this was exactly the right time to cover the implementation details of Stage 6 Yuuka's parasol and vanishing animations in TH04. :zunpet:

With still a bit of time left in that RE push afterwards, I could also start looking into some of the smaller functions that didn't quite fit into other pushes. The most notable one there was a simple function that aims from any point to the current player position. Which actually only became a separate function in TH05, probably since it's called 27 times in total. That's 27 places no longer being blocked from further RE progress.

WindowsTiger already did most of the work for the score popup numbers in January, which meant that I only had to review it and bring it up to ReC98's current coding styles and standards. This one turned out to be one of those rare features whose TH05 implementation is significantly less insane than the TH04 one. Both games lazily redraw only the tiles of the stage background that were drawn over in the previous frame, and try their best to minimize the amount of tiles to be redrawn in this way. For these popup numbers, this involves calculating the on-screen width, based on the exact number of digits in the point value. TH04 calculates this width every frame during the rendering function, and even resorts to setting that field through the digit iteration pointer via self-modifying code… yup. TH05, on the other hand, simply calculates the width once when spawning a new popup number, during the conversion of the point value to binary-coded decimal. The "×2" multiplier suffix being removed in TH05 certainly also helped in simplifying that feature in this game.

And that's ⅓ of TH05 reverse-engineered! Next up, one more TH05 PI push, in which the stage enemies hopefully finish all the big entity types. Maybe it will also be accompanied by another RE push? In any case, that will be the last piece of TH05 progress for quite some time. The next TH01 stretch will consist of 6 pushes at the very least, and I currently have no idea of how much time I can spend on ReC98 a month from now…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0078, P0079
Commits:
f4eb7a8...9e52cb1, 9e52cb1...cd48aa3
💰 Funded by:
iruleatgames, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- animation+ bullet+ boss+ alice+ mai+ yuki+ yumeko+ shinki+ ex-alice+ uth05win+

To finish this TH05 stretch, we've got a feature that's exclusive to TH05 for once! As the final memory management innovation in PC-98 Touhou, TH05 provides a single static (64 * 26)-byte array for storing up to 64 entities of a custom type, specific to a stage or boss portion. The game uses this array for

  1. the Stage 2 star particles,
  2. Alice's puppets,
  3. the tip of curve ("jello") bullets,
  4. Mai's snowballs and Yuki's fireballs,
  5. Yumeko's swords,
  6. and Shinki's 32×32 bullets,

which makes sense, given that only one of those will be active at any given time.

On the surface, they all appear to share the same 26-byte structure, with consistently sized fields, merely using its 5 generic fields for different purposes. Looking closer though, there actually are differences in the signedness of certain fields across the six types. uth05win chose to declare them as entirely separate structures, and given all the semantic differences (pixels vs. subpixels, regular vs. tiny master.lib sprites, …), it made sense to do the same in ReC98. It quickly turned out to be the only solution to meet my own standards of code readability.

Which blew this one up to two pushes once again… But now, modders can trivially resize any of those structures without affecting the other types within the original (64 * 26)-byte boundary, even without full position independence. While you'd still have to reduce the type-specific number of distinct entities if you made any structure larger, you could also have more entities with fewer structure members.

As for the types themselves, they're full of redundancy once again – as you might have already expected from seeing #4, #5, and #6 listed as unrelated to each other. Those could have indeed been merged into a single 32×32 bullet type, supporting all the unique properties of #4 (destructible, with optional revenge bullets), #5 (optional number of twirl animation frames before they begin to move) and #6 (delay clouds). The *_add(), *_update(), and *_render() functions of #5 and #6 could even already be completely reverse-engineered from just applying the structure onto the ASM, with the ones of #3 and #4 only needing one more RE push.

But perhaps the most interesting discovery here is in the curve bullets: TH05 only renders every second one of the 17 nodes in a curve bullet, yet hit-tests every single one of them. In practice, this is an acceptable optimization though – you only start to notice jagged edges and gaps between the fragments once their speed exceeds roughly 11 pixels per second:

And that brings us to the last 20% of TH05 position independence! But first, we'll have more cheap and fast TH01 progress.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0072, P0073, P0074, P0075
Commits:
4bb04ab...cea3ea6, cea3ea6...5286417, 5286417...1807906, 1807906...222fc99
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-, Myles
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- blitting+ bullet+ micro-optimization+ uth05win+

Long time no see! And this is exactly why I've been procrastinating bullets while there was still meaningful progress to be had in other parts of TH04 and TH05: There was bound to be quite some complexity in this most central piece of game logic, and so I couldn't possibly get to a satisfying understanding in just one push.

Or in two, because their rendering involves another bunch of micro-optimized functions adapted from master.lib.

Or in three, because we'd like to actually name all the bullet sprites, since there are a number of sprite ID-related conditional branches. And so, I was refining things I supposedly RE'd in the the commits from the first push until the very end of the fourth.

When we talk about "bullets" in TH04 and TH05, we mean just two things: the white 8×8 pellets, with a cap of 240 in TH04 and 180 in TH05, and any 16×16 sprites from MIKO16.BFT, with a cap of 200 in TH04 and 220 in TH05. These are by far the most common types of… err, "things the player can collide with", and so ZUN provides a whole bunch of pre-made motion, animation, and n-way spread / ring / stack group options for those, which can be selected by simply setting a few fields in the bullet template. All the other "non-bullets" have to be fired and controlled individually.

Which is nothing new, since uth05win covered this part pretty accurately – I don't think anyone could just make up these structure member overloads. The interesting insights here all come from applying this research to TH04, and figuring out its differences compared to TH05. The most notable one there is in the default groups: TH05 allows you to add a stack to any single bullet, n-way spread or ring, but TH04 only lets you create stacks separately from n-way spreads and rings, and thus gets by with fewer fields in its bullet template structure. On the other hand, TH04 has a separate "n-way spread with random angles, yet still aimed at the player" group? Which seems to be unused, at least as far as midbosses and bosses are concerned; can't say anything about stage enemies yet.

In fact, TH05's larger bullet template structure illustrates that these distinct group types actually are a rather redundant piece of over-engineering. You can perfectly indicate any permutation of the basic groups through just the stack bullet count (1 = no stack), spread bullet count (1 = no spread), and spread delta angle (0 = ring instead of spread). Add a 4-flag bitfield to cover the rest (aim to player, randomize angle, randomize speed, force single bullet regardless of difficulty or rank), and the result would be less redundant and even slightly more capable.

Even those 4 pushes didn't quite finish all of the bullet-related types, stopping just shy of the most trivial and consistent enum that defines special movement. This also left us in a 📝 TH03-like situation, in which we're still a bit away from actually converting all this research into actual RE%. Oh well, at least this got us way past 50% in overall position independence. On to the second half! 🎉

For the next push though, we'll first have a quick detour to the remaining C code of all the ZUN.COM binaries. Now that the 📝 TH04 and TH05 resident structures no longer block those, -Tom- has requested TH05's RES_KSO.COM to be covered in one of his outstanding pushes. And since 32th System recently RE'd TH03's resident structure, it makes sense to also review and merge that, before decompiling all three remaining RES_*.COM binaries in hopefully a single push. It might even get done faster than that, in which case I'll then review and merge some more of WindowsTiger's research.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0071
Commits:
327021b...4bb04ab
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay- player+

Turns out that covering TH03's 128-byte player structure was way more insightful than expected! And while it doesn't include every bit of per-player data, we still got to know quite a bit about the game from just trying to name its members:

  • 50 frames of invincibility when starting a new round
  • 110 frames of invincibility when getting hit
  • 64 frames of knockback when getting hit
  • 128 frames before a charged up gauge/boss attack is fired automatically
  • The damage a player will take from the next hit starts out at ½ heart at the beginning of each round, and increases by another ½ heart every 1024 frames, capped at a maximum of 3 hearts. This guarantees that a player will always survive at least two hits.
  • In Story Mode, hit damage is biased in favor of the player for the first 6 stages. The CPU will always take an additional 1½ hearts of damage in stages 1 and 2, 1 heart in stages 3 and 4, and ½ heart in stages 5 and 6, plus the above frame-based and capped damage amount. So while it's therefore possible to cause 4½ hearts of damage in Stages 1 and 2 if the first hit is somehow delayed for at least 5120 frames, you'd still win faster if the CPU gets hit as soon as possible.
  • CPU players will charge up a gauge/boss attack as soon as their gauge has reached a certain level. These levels are now proved to be random; at the start of every round, the game generates a sequence of 64 gauge level positions (from 1 to 4), separately for each player. If a round were to last long enough for a CPU player to fire all 64 of those predetermined attacks, you'd observe that sequence repeating.
    • Yes, that means that in theory, these levels can be RNG-manipulated. More details on that once we got this game's resident structure, where the seed is stored.
  • CPU players follow two main strategies: trying to not get hit, and… not quite doing that once they've survived for a certain safety threshold of frames. For the first 2000 frames of a round, this safety frame counter is reset to 0 every 64 frames, leading the CPU to switch quickly between the two strategies in the first few Story Mode stages on lower difficulties, where this safety threshold is less than 64. The calculation of the actual value is a bit more complex; more on that also once we got this game's resident structure.
  • Section 13 of 夢時空.TXT states that Boss Attacks are only counted towards the Clear Bonus if they were caused by reaching a certain number of spell points. This is incorrect; manually charged Level 4 Boss Attacks are counted as well.

The next TH03 pushes can now cover all the functions that reference this structure in one way or another, and actually commit all this research and translate it into some RE%. Since the non-TH05 priorities have become a bit unclear after the last 50 € RE contribution though (as of this writing, it's still 10 € to decide on what game to cover in two RE pushes!), I'll be returning to TH05 until that's decided.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0070
Commits:
a931758...327021b
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay- score+

As noted in 📝 P0061, TH03 gameplay RE is indeed going to progress very slowly in the beginning. A lot of the initial progress won't even be reflected in the RE% – there are just so many features in this game that are intertwined into each other, and I only consider functions to be "reverse-engineered" once we understand every involved piece of code and data, and labeled every absolute memory reference in it. (Yes, that means that the percentages on the front page are actually underselling ReC98's progress quite a bit, and reflect a pretty low bound of our actual understanding of the games.)

So, when I get asked to look directly at gameplay code right now, it's quite the struggle to find a place that can be covered within a push or two and that would immediately benefit scoreplayers. The basics of score and combo handling themselves managed to fit in pretty well, though:

  • Just like TH04 and TH05, TH03 stores the current score as 8 binary-coded decimal digits. Since the last constant 0 is not included, the maximum score displayable without glitches therefore is 999,999,990 points, but the game will happily store up to 24,699,999,990 points before the score wraps back to 0.
  • There are (surprisingly?) only 6 places where the game actually adds points to the score. Not quite sure about all of them yet, but they (of course) include ending a combo, killing enemies, and the bonus at the end of a round.
  • Combos can be continued for 80 frames after a 2-hit. The hit counter can only be increased in the first 48, and effectively resets to 0 for the last 32, when the Spell Point value starts blinking.
  • TH03 can track a total of 16 independent "hit combo sources" per player, simultaneously. These are not related to the number of actual explosions; rather, each explosion is assigned to one of the 16 slots when it spawns, and all consecutive explosions spawned from that one will then add to the hit combo in that slot. The hit number displayed in the top left is simply the largest one among all these.

Oh well, at least we still got a bit of PI% out of this one. From this point though, the next push (or two) should be enough to cover the big 128-byte player structure – which by itself might not be immediately interesting to scoreplayers, but surely is quite a blocker for everything else.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0062
Commits:
1d6fbb8...f275e04
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ shot+ position-independence+ animation+

Big gains, as expected, but not much to say about this one. With TH05 Reimu being way too easy to decompile after 📝 the shot control groundwork done in October, there was enough time to give the comprehensive PI false-positive treatment to two other sets of functions present in TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE. One of them, master.lib's super_*() functions, was used a lot in TH02, more than in any other game… I wonder how much more that game will progress without even focusing on it in particular.

Alright then! 100% PI for TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE upcoming… (Edit: Already got funding to cover this!)

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0061
Commits:
96684f4...5f4f5d8
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay- player+ shot+ animation+

… nope, with a game whose MAIN.EXE is still just 5% reverse-engineered and which naturally makes heavy use of structures, there's still a lot more PI groundwork to be done before RE progress can speed up to the levels that we've now reached with TH05. The good news is that this game is (now) way easier to understand: In contrast to TH04 and TH05, where we needed to work towards player shots over a two-digit number of pushes, TH03 only needed two for SPRITE16, and a half one for the playfield shaking mechanism. After that, I could even already decompile the per-frame shot update and render functions, thanks to TH03's high number of code segments. Now, even the big 128-byte player structure doesn't seem all too far off.

Then again, as TH03 shares no code with any other game, this actually was a completely average PI push. For the remaining three, we'll return to TH04 and TH05 though, which should more than make up for the slight drop in RE speed after this one.

In other news, we've now also reached peak C++, with the introduction of templates! TH03 stores movement speeds in a 4.4 fixed-point format, which is an 8-bit spin on the usual 16-bit, 12.4 fixed-point format.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0057, P0058
Commits:
1cb9731...ac7540d, ac7540d...fef0299
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- item+ animation+ uth05win+ meta+

So, here we have the first two pushes with an explicit focus on position independence… and they start out looking barely different from regular reverse-engineering? They even already deduplicate a bunch of item-related code, which was simple enough that it required little additional work? Because the actual work, once again, was in comparing uth05win's interpretations and naming choices with the original PC-98 code? So that we only ended up removing a handful of memory references there?

(Oh well, you can mod item drops now!)

So, continuing to interpret PI as a mere by-product of reverse-engineering might ultimately drive up the total PI cost quite a bit. But alright then, let's systematically clear out some false positives by looking at master.lib function calls instead… and suddenly we get the PI progress we were looking for, nicely spread out over all games since TH02. That kinda makes it sound like useless work, only done because it's dictated by some counting algorithm on a website. But decompilation will want to convert all of these values to decimal anyway. We're merely doing that right now, across all games.

Then again, it doesn't actually make any game more position-independent, and only proves how position-independent it already was. So I'm really wondering right now whether I should just rush actual position independence by simply identifying structures and their sizes, and not bother with members or false positives until that's done. That would certainly get the job done for TH04 and TH05 in just a few more pushes, but then leave all the proving work (and the road to 100% PI on the front page) to reverse-engineering.

I don't know. Would it be worth it to have a game that's „maybe fully position-independent“, only for there to maybe be rare edge cases where it isn't?

Or maybe, continuing to strike a balance between identifying false positives (fast) and reverse-engineering structures (slow) will continue to work out like it did now, and make us end up close to the current estimate, which was attractive enough to sell out the crowdfunding for the first time… 🤔

Please give feedback! If possible, by Friday evening UTC+1, before I start working on the next PI push, this time with a focus on TH04.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0036, P0037
Commits:
a533b5d...82b0e1d, 82b0e1d...e7e1cbc
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ shot+ tcc+

And just in time for zorg's last outstanding pushes, the TH05 shot type control functions made the speedup happen!

  • TH05 as a whole is now 20% reverse-engineered, and 50% position independent,
  • TH05's MAIN.EXE is now even below TH02's in terms of not yet RE'd instructions,
  • and all price estimates have now fallen significantly.

It would have been really nice to also include Reimu's shot control functions in this last push, but figuring out this entire system, with its weird bitflags and switch statement micro-optimizations, was once again taking way longer than it should have. Especially with my new-found insistence on turning this obvious copy-pasta into something somewhat readable and terse…

But with such a rather tabular visual structure, things should now be moddable in hopefully easily consistent way. Of course, since we're only at 54% position independence for MAIN.EXE, this isn't possible yet without crashing the game, but modifiying damage would already work.

Despite my earlier claims of ZUN only having used C++ in TH01, as it's the only game using new and delete, it's now pretty much confirmed that ZUN used it for all games, as inlined functions (and by extension, C++ class methods) are the only way to get certain instructions out of the Turbo C++ code generator. Also, I've kept my promise and started really filling that decompilation pattern file.

And now, with the reverse-engineering backlog finally being cleared out, we wait for the next orders, and the direction they might focus on…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0034, P0035
Commits:
6cdd229...6f1f367, 6f1f367...a533b5d
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ animation+ gameplay- player+ bomb+

Deathbombs confirmed, in both TH04 and TH05! On the surface, it's the same 8-frame window as in most Windows games, but due to the slightly lower PC-98 frame rate of 56.4 Hz, it's actually slightly more lenient in TH04 and TH05.

The last function in front of the TH05 shot type control functions marks the player's previous position in VRAM to be redrawn. But as it turns out, "player" not only means "the player's option satellites on shot levels ≥ 2", but also "the explosion animation if you lose a life", which required reverse-engineering both things, ultimately leading to the confirmation of deathbombs.

It actually was kind of surprising that we then had reverse-engineered everything related to rendering all three things mentioned above, and could also cover the player rendering function right now. Luckily, TH05 didn't decide to also micro-optimize that function into un-decompilability; in fact, it wasn't changed at all from TH04. Unlike the one invalidation function whose decompilation would have actually been the goal here…

But now, we've finally gotten to where we wanted to… and only got 2 outstanding decompilation pushes left. Time to get the website ready for hosting an actual crowdfunding campaign, I'd say – It'll make a better impression if people can still see things being delivered after the big announcement.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0029, P0030
Commits:
6ff427a...c7fc4ca, c7fc4ca...dea40ad
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ blitting+ gameplay- midboss+ boss+ tcc+

Here we go, new C code! …eh, it will still take a bit to really get decompilation going at the speeds I was hoping for. Especially with the sheer amount of stuff that is set in the first few significant functions we actually can decompile, which now all has to be correctly declared in the C world. Turns out I spent the last 2 years screwing up the case of exported functions, and even some of their names, so that it didn't actually reflect their calling convention… yup. That's just the stuff you tend to forget while it doesn't matter.

To make up for that, I decided to research whether we can make use of some C++ features to improve code readability after all. Previously, it seemed that TH01 was the only game that included any C++ code, whereas TH02 and later seemed to be 100% C and ASM. However, during the development of the soon to be released new build system, I noticed that even this old compiler from the mid-90's, infamous for prioritizing compile speeds over all but the most trivial optimizations, was capable of quite surprising levels of automatic inlining with class methods…

…leading the research to culminate in the mindblow that is 9d121c7 – yes, we can use C++ class methods and operator overloading to make the code more readable, while still generating the same code than if we had just used C and preprocessor macros.

Looks like there's now the potential for a few pull requests from outside devs that apply C++ features to improve the legibility of previously decompiled and terribly macro-ridden code. So, if anyone wants to help without spending money…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0028
Commits:
6023f5c...6ff427a
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- midboss+ boss+

Back to actual development! Starting off this stretch with something fairly mechanical, the few remaining generic boss and midboss state variables. And once we start converting the constant numbers used for and around those variables into decimal, the estimated position independence probability immediately jumped by 5.31% for TH04's MAIN.EXE, and 4.49% for TH05's – despite not having made the game any more position- independent than it was before. Yup… lots of false positives in there, but who can really know for sure without having put in the work.

But now, we've RE'd enough to finally decompile something again next, 4 years after the last decompilation of anything!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0049, P0050
Commits:
893bd46...6ed8e60
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ gameplay- boss+ yumeko+

Sometimes, "strategically picking things to reverse-engineer" unfortunately also means "having to move seemingly random and utterly uninteresting stuff, which will only make sense later, out of the way". Really, this was so boring. Gonna get a lot more exciting in the next ones though.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0047, P0048
Commits:
9a2c6f7...893bd46
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ shot+ animation+ waste+

So, let's continue with player shots! …eh, or maybe not directly, since they involve two other structure types in TH05, which we'd have to cover first. One of them is a different sort of sprite, and since I like me some context in my reverse-engineering, let's disable every other sprite type first to figure out what it is.

One of those other sprite types were the little sparks flying away from killed stage enemies, midbosses, and grazed bullets; easy enough to also RE right now. Turns out they use the same 8 hardcoded 8×8 sprites in TH02, TH04, and TH05. Except that it's actually 64 16×8 sprites, because ZUN wanted to pre-shift them for all 8 possible start pixels within a planar VRAM byte (rather than, like, just writing a few instructions to shift them programmatically), leading to them taking up 1,024 bytes rather than just 64.
Oh, and the thing I wanted to RE *actually* was the decay animation whenever a shot hits something. Not too complex either, especially since it's exclusive to TH05.

And since there was some time left and I actually have to pick some of the next RE places strategically to best prepare for the upcoming 17 decompilation pushes, here's two more function pointers for good measure.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0046
Commits:
612beb8...deb45ea
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ micro-optimization+ gameplay- player+ shot+

Stumbled across one more drawing function in the way… which was only a duplicated and seemingly pointlessly micro-optimized copy of master.lib's super_roll_put_tiny() function, used for fast display of 4-color 16×16 sprites.

With this out of the way, we can tackle player shot sprite animation next. This will get rid of a lot of code, since every power level of every character's shot type is implemented in its own function. Which makes up thousands of instructions in both TH04 and TH05 that we can nicely decompile in the future without going through a dedicated reverse-engineering step.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0023, P0024
Commits:
807df3d...0cde4b7
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- laser+ micro-optimization+

Actually, I lied, and lasers ended up coming with everything that makes reverse-engineering ZUN code so difficult: weirdly reused variables, unexpected structures within structures, and those TH05-specific nasty, premature ASM micro-optimizations that will waste a lot of time during decompilation, since the majority of the code actually was C, except for where it wasn't.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0042
Commits:
f3b6137...807df3d
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- laser+ uth05win+

Laser… is not difficult. In fact, out of the remaining entity types I checked, it's the easiest one to fully grasp from uth05win alone, as it's only drawn using master.lib's line, circle, and polygon functions. Everything else ends up calling… something sprite-related that needs to be RE'd separately, and which uth05win doesn't help with, at all.

Oh, and since the speed of shoot-out lasers (as used by TH05's Stage 2 boss, for example) always depends on rank, we also got this variable now.

This only covers the structure itself – uth05win's member names for the LASER structure were not only a bit too unclear, but also plain wrong and misleading in one instance. The actual implementation will follow in the next one.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0041
Commits:
b03bc91...f3b6137
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- midboss+ boss+

So, after introducing instruction number statistics… let's go for over 2,000 lines that won't show up there immediately :tannedcirno: That being (mid-)boss HP, position, and sprite ID variables for TH04/TH05. Doesn't sound like much, but it kind of is if you insist on decimal numbers for easier comparison with uth05win's source code.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0018
Commits:
746681d...178d589
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ score+ uth05win+

What do you do if the TH06 text image feature for thcrap should have been done 3 days™ ago, but keeps getting more and more complex, and you have a ton of other pushes to deliver anyway? Get some distraction with some light ReC98 reverse-engineering work. This is where it becomes very obvious how much uth05win helps us with all the games, not just TH05.

5a5c347 is the most important one in there, this was the missing substructure that now makes every other sprite-like structure trivial to figure out.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0008
Commits:
47e5601...d62dd06
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay- player+ shot+

You could use this to get a homing Mima, for example.