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- rec98 th01 pc98 blitting good-code jank gameplay boss rng
50% hype! 🎉 But as usual for TH01, even that final set of functions shared between all bosses had to consume two pushes rather than one…
First up, in the ongoing series "Things that TH01 draws to the PC-98
graphics layer that really should have been drawn to the text layer
instead": The boss HP bar. Oh well, using the graphics layer at least made
it possible to have this half-red, half-white pattern
for the middle section.
This one pattern is drawn by making surprisingly good use of the GRCG. So far, we've only seen it used for fast monochrome drawing:
// Setting up fast drawing using color #9 (1001 in binary) grcg_setmode(GC_RMW); outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 0: (B): (********) outportb(0x7E, 0x00); // Plane 1: (R): ( ) outportb(0x7E, 0x00); // Plane 2: (G): ( ) outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 3: (E): (********) // Write a checkerboard pattern (* * * * ) in color #9 to the top-left corner, // with transparent blanks. Requires only 1 VRAM write to a single bitplane: // The GRCG automatically writes to the correct bitplanes, as specified above *(uint8_t *)(MK_FP(0xA800, 0)) = 0xAA;
But since this is actually an 8-pixel tile register, we can set any 8-pixel pattern for any bitplane. This way, we can get different colors for every one of the 8 pixels, with still just a single VRAM write of the alpha mask to a single bitplane:
grcg_setmode(GC_RMW); // Final color: (A7A7A7A7) outportb(0x7E, 0x55); // Plane 0: (B): ( * * * *) outportb(0x7E, 0xFF); // Plane 1: (R): (********) outportb(0x7E, 0x55); // Plane 2: (G): ( * * * *) outportb(0x7E, 0xAA); // Plane 3: (E): (* * * * )
And I thought TH01 only suffered the drawbacks of PC-98 hardware, making so little use of its actual features that it's perhaps not fair to even call it "a PC-98 game"… Still, I'd say that "bad PC-98 port of an idea" describes it best.
However, after that tiny flash of brilliance, the surrounding HP rendering code goes right back to being the typical sort of confusing TH01 jank. There's only a single function for the three distinct jobs of
- incrementing HP during the boss entrance animation,
- decrementing HP if hit by the Orb, and
- redrawing the entire bar, because it's still all in VRAM, and Sariel wants different backgrounds,
with magic numbers to select between all of these.
VRAM of course also means that the backgrounds behind the individual hit
points have to be stored, so that they can be unblitted later as the boss
is losing HP. That's no big deal though, right? Just allocate some memory,
copy what's initially in VRAM, then blit it back later using your
foundational set of blitting funct– oh, wait, TH01 doesn't have this sort
of thing, right The closest thing,
📝 once again, are the .PTN functions. And
so, the game ends up handling these 8×16 background sprites with 16×16
wrappers around functions for 32×32 sprites.
That's quite the recipe for confusion, especially since ZUN
preferred copy-pasting the necessary ridiculous arithmetic expressions for
calculating positions, .PTN sprite IDs, and the ID of the 16×16 quarter
inside the 32×32 sprite, instead of just writing simple helper functions.
He did manage to make the result mostly bug-free this time
around, though! (Edit (2022-05-31): Nope, there's a
📝 potential heap corruption after all, which can be triggered in some fights in test mode (
game t) or debug mode (
There's one minor hit point discoloration bug if the red-white or white
sections start at an odd number of hit points, but that's never the case for
any of the original 7 bosses.
The remaining sloppiness is ultimately inconsequential as well: The game always backs up twice the number of hit point backgrounds, and thus uses twice the amount of memory actually required. Also, this self-restriction of only unblitting 16×16 pixels at a time requires any remaining odd hit point at the last position to, of course, be rendered again
After stumbling over the weakest imaginable random number
generator, we finally arrive at the shared boss↔orb collision
handling function, the final blocker among the final blockers. This
function takes a whopping 12 parameters, 3 of them being references to
int values, some of which are duplicated for every one of the
7 bosses, with no generic boss
📝 Previously, I speculated that YuugenMagan might have been the first boss to be programmed for TH01.
With all these variables though, there is some new evidence that SinGyoku
might have been the first one after all: It's the only boss to use its own
HP and phase frame variables, with the other bosses sharing the same two
While this function only handles the response to a boss↔orb
collision, it still does way too much to describe it briefly. Took me
quite a while to frame it in terms of invincibility (which is the
main impact of all of this that can be observed in gameplay code). That
made at least some sort of sense, considering the other usages of
the variables passed as references to that function. Turns out that
YuugenMagan, Kikuri, and Elis abuse what's meant to be the "invincibility
frame" variable as a frame counter for some of their animations 🙄
Oh well, the game at least doesn't call the collision handling function during those, so "invincibility frame" is technically still a correct variable name there.
And that's it! We're finally ready to start with Konngara, in 2021. I've been waiting quite a while for this, as all this high-level boss code is very likely to speed up TH01 progress quite a bit. Next up though: Closing out 2020 with more of the technical debt in the other games.