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Showing all posts tagged player-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0162, P0163, P0164
Commits:
81dd96e...24b3a0d, 24b3a0d...6d572b3, 6d572b3...7a0e5d8
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay+ player- shot+ animation+ glitch+ waste+ jank+ unused+

No technical obstacles for once! Just pure overcomplicated ZUN code. Unlike 📝 Konngara's main function, the main TH01 player function was every bit as difficult to decompile as you would expect from its size.

With TH01 using both separate left- and right-facing sprites for all of Reimu's moves and separate classes for Reimu's 32×32 and 48×* sprites, we're already off to a bad start. Sure, sprite mirroring is minimally more involved on PC-98, as the planar nature of VRAM requires the bits within an 8-pixel byte to also be mirrored, in addition to writing the sprite bytes from right to left. TH03 uses a 256-byte lookup table for this, generated at runtime by an infamous micro-optimized and undecompilable ASM algorithm. With TH01's existing architecture, ZUN would have then needed to write 3 additional blitting functions. But instead, he chose to waste a total of 26,112 bytes of memory on pre-mirrored sprites… :godzun:

Alright, but surely selecting those sprites from code is no big deal? Just store the direction Reimu is facing in, and then add some branches to the rendering code. And there is in fact a variable for Reimu's direction… during regular arrow-key movement, and another one while shooting and sliding, and a third as part of the special attack types, launched out of a slide.
Well, OK, technically, the last two are the same variable. But that's even worse, because it means that ZUN stores two distinct enums at the same place in memory: Shooting and sliding uses 1 for left, 2 for right, and 3 for the "invalid" direction of holding both, while the special attack types indicate the direction in their lowest bit, with 0 for right and 1 for left. I decompiled the latter as bitflags, but in ZUN's code, each of the 8 permutations is handled as a distinct type, with copy-pasted and adapted code… :zunpet: The interpretation of this two-enum "sub-mode" union variable is controlled by yet another "mode" variable… and unsurprisingly, two of the bugs in this function relate to the sub-mode variable being interpreted incorrectly.

Also, "rendering code"? This one big function basically consists of separate unblit→update→render code snippets for every state and direction Reimu can be in (moving, shooting, swinging, sliding, special-attacking, and bombing), pasted together into a tangled mess of nested if(…) statements. While a lot of the code is copy-pasted, there are still a number of inconsistencies that defeat the point of my usual refactoring treatment. After all, with a total of 85 conditional branches, anything more than I did would have just obscured the control flow too badly, making it even harder to understand what's going on.
In the end, I spotted a total of 8 bugs in this function, all of which leave Reimu invisible for one or more frames:

Thanks to the last one, Reimu's first swing animation frame is never actually rendered. So whenever someone complains about TH01 sprite flickering on an emulator: That emulator is accurate, it's the game that's poorly written. :tannedcirno:

And guess what, this function doesn't even contain everything you'd associate with per-frame player behavior. While it does handle Yin-Yang Orb repulsion as part of slides and special attacks, it does not handle the actual player/Orb collision that results in lives being lost. The funny thing about this: These two things are done in the same function… :onricdennat:

Therefore, the life loss animation is also part of another function. This is where we find the final glitch in this 3-push series: Before the 16-frame shake, this function only unblits a 32×32 area around Reimu's center point, even though it's possible to lose a life during the non-deflecting part of a 48×48-pixel animation. In that case, the extra pixels will just stay on screen during the shake. They are unblitted afterwards though, which suggests that ZUN was at least somewhat aware of the issue?
Finally, the chance to see the alternate life loss sprite Alternate TH01 life loss sprite is exactly ⅛.


As for any new insights into game mechanics… you know what? I'm just not going to write anything, and leave you with this flowchart instead. Here's the definitive guide on how to control Reimu in TH01 we've been waiting for 24 years:

Pellets are deflected during all gray states. Not shown is the obvious "double-tap Z and X" transition from all non-(#1) states to the Bomb state, but that would have made this diagram even more unwieldy than it turned out. And yes, you can shoot twice as fast while moving left or right.

While I'm at it, here are two more animations from MIKO.PTN which aren't referenced by any code:

With that monster of a function taken care of, we've only got boss sprite animation as the final blocker of uninterrupted Sariel progress. Due to some unfavorable code layout in the Mima segment though, I'll need to spend a bit more time with some of the features used there. Next up: The missile bullets used in the Mima and YuugenMagan fights.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0147
Commits:
456b621...c940059
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ pc98+ player- bomb+ boss+ shinki+ ex-alice+ animation+ waste+

Didn't quite get to cover background rendering for TH05's Stage 1-5 bosses in this one, as I had to reverse-engineer two more fundamental parts involved in boss background rendering before.

First, we got the those blocky transitions from stage tiles to bomb and boss backgrounds, loaded from BB*.BB and ST*.BB, respectively. These files store up to 8 frames of animation, with every bit corresponding to a 16×16 tile on the playfield. With 384×368 pixels to be covered, that would require 69 bytes per frame. But since that's a very odd number to work with in micro-optimized ASM, ZUN instead stores 512×512 pixels worth of bits, ending up with a frame size of 128 bytes, and a per-frame waste of 59 bytes. :tannedcirno: At least it was possible to decompile the core blitting function as __fastcall for once.
But wait, TH05 comes with, and loads, a bomb .BB file for every character, not just for the Reimu and Yuuka bomb transitions you see in-game… 🤔 Restoring those unused stage tile → bomb image transition animations for Mima and Marisa isn't that trivial without having decompiled their actual bomb animation functions before, so stay tuned!

Interestingly though, the code leaves out what would look like the most obvious optimization: All stage tiles are unconditionally redrawn each frame before they're erased again with the 16×16 blocks, no matter if they weren't covered by such a block in the previous frame, or are going to be covered by such a block in this frame. The same is true for the static bomb and boss background images, where ZUN simply didn't write a .CDG blitting function that takes the dirty tile array into account. If VRAM writes on PC-98 really were as slow as the games' README.TXT files claim them to be, shouldn't all the optimization work have gone towards minimizing them? :thonk: Oh well, it's not like I have any idea what I'm talking about here. I'd better stop talking about anything relating to VRAM performance on PC-98… :onricdennat:


Second, it finally was time to solve the long-standing confusion about all those callbacks that are supposed to render the playfield background. Given the aforementioned static bomb background images, ZUN chose to make this needlessly complicated. And so, we have two callback function pointers: One during bomb animations, one outside of bomb animations, and each boss update function is responsible for keeping the former in sync with the latter. :zunpet:

Other than that, this was one of the smoothest pushes we've had in a while; the hardest parts of boss background rendering all were part of 📝 the last push. Once you figured out that ZUN does indeed dynamically change hardware color #0 based on the current boss phase, the remaining one function for Shinki, and all of EX-Alice's background rendering becomes very straightforward and understandable.


Meanwhile, -Tom- told me about his plans to publicly release 📝 his TH05 scripting toolkit once TH05's MAIN.EXE would hit around 50% RE! That pretty much defines what the next bunch of generic TH05 pushes will go towards: bullets, shared boss code, and one full, concrete boss script to demonstrate how it's all combined. Next up, therefore: TH04's bullet firing code…? Yes, TH04's. I want to see what I'm doing before I tackle the undecompilable mess that is TH05's bullet firing code, and you all probably want readable code for that feature as well. Turns out it's also the perfect place for Blue Bolt's pending contributions.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0123
Commits:
4406c3d...72dfa09
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ player- animation+ blitting+ waste+ jank+

Done with the .BOS format, at last! While there's still quite a bunch of undecompiled non-format blitting code left, this was in fact the final piece of graphics format loading code in TH01.

📝 Continuing the trend from three pushes ago, we've got yet another class, this time for the 48×48 and 48×32 sprites used in Reimu's gohei, slide, and kick animations. The only reason these had to use the .BOS format at all is simply because Reimu's regular sprites are 32×32, and are therefore loaded from 📝 .PTN files.
Yes, this makes no sense, because why would you split animations for the same character across two file formats and two APIs, just because of a sprite size difference? This necessity for switching blitting APIs might also explain why Reimu vanishes for a few frames at the beginning and the end of the gohei swing animation, but more on that once we get to the high-level rendering code.

Now that we've decompiled all the .BOS implementations in TH01, here's an overview of all of them, together with .PTN to show that there really was no reason for not using the .BOS API for all of Reimu's sprites:

CBossEntity CBossAnim CPlayerAnim ptn_* (32×32)
Format .BOS .BOS .BOS .PTN
Hitbox
Byte-aligned blitting
Byte-aligned unblitting
Unaligned blitting Single-line and wave only
Precise unblitting
Per-file sprite limit 8 8 32 64
Pixels blitted at once 16 16 8 32

And even that last property could simply be handled by branching based on the sprite width, and wouldn't be a reason for switching formats. But well, it just wouldn't be TH01 without all that redundant bloat though, would it?

The basic loading, freeing, and blitting code was yet another variation on the other .BOS code we've seen before. So this should have caused just as little trouble as the CBossAnim code… except that CPlayerAnim did add one slightly difficult function to the mix, which led to it requiring almost a full push after all. Similar to 📝 the unblitting code for moving lasers we've seen in the last push, ZUN tries to minimize the amount of VRAM writes when unblitting Reimu's slide animations. Technically, it's only necessary to restore the pixels that Reimu traveled by, plus the ones that wouldn't be redrawn by the new animation frame at the new X position.
The theoretically arbitrary distance between the two sprites is, of course, modeled by a fixed-size buffer on the stack :onricdennat:, coming with the further assumption that the sprite surely hasn't moved by more than 1 horizontal VRAM byte compared to the last frame. Which, of course, results in glitches if that's not the case, leaving little Reimu parts in VRAM if the slide speed ever exceeded 8 pixels per frame. :tannedcirno: (Which it never does, being hardcoded to 6 pixels, but still.). As it also turns out, all those bit masking operations easily lead to incredibly sloppy C code. Which compiles into incredibly terrible ASM, which in turn might end up wasting way more CPU time than the final VRAM write optimization would have gained? Then again, in-depth profiling is way beyond the scope of this project at this point.

Next up: The TH04 main menu, and some more technical debt.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0111, P0112
Commits:
8b5c146...4ef4c9e, 4ef4c9e...e447a2d
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- bomb+ boss+ ex-alice+ animation+ glitch+ jank+

Only one newly ordered push since I've reopened the store? Great, that's all the justification I needed for the extended maintenance delay that was part of these two pushes 😛

Having to write comments to explain whether coordinates are relative to the top-left corner of the screen or the top-left corner of the playfield has finally become old. So, I introduced distinct types for all the coordinate systems we typically encounter, applying them to all code decompiled so far. Note how the planar nature of PC-98 VRAM meant that X and Y coordinates also had to be different from each other. On the X side, there's mainly the distinction between the [0; 640] screen space and the corresponding [0; 80] VRAM byte space. On the Y side, we also have the [0; 400] screen space, but the visible area of VRAM might be limited to [0; 200] when running in the PC-98's line-doubled 640×200 mode. A VRAM Y coordinate also always implies an added offset for vertical scrolling.
During all of the code reconstruction, these types can only have a documenting purpose. Turning them into anything more than just typedefs to int, in order to define conversion operators between them, simply won't recompile into identical binaries. Modding and porting projects, however, now have a nice foundation for doing just that, and can entirely lift coordinate system transformations into the type system, without having to proofread all the meaningless int declarations themselves.


So, what was left in terms of memory references? EX-Alice's fire waves were our final unknown entity that can collide with the player. Decently implemented, with little to say about them.

That left the bomb animation structures as the one big remaining PI blocker. They started out nice and simple in TH04, with a small 6-byte star animation structure used for both Reimu and Marisa. TH05, however, gave each character her own animation… and what the hell is going on with Reimu's blue stars there? Nope, not going to figure this out on ASM level.

A decompilation first required some more bomb-related variables to be named though. Since this was part of a generic RE push, it made sense to do this in all 5 games… which then led to nice PI gains in anything but TH05. :tannedcirno: Most notably, we now got the "pulling all items to player" flag in TH04 and TH05, which is actually separate from bombing. The obvious cheat mod is left as an exercise to the reader.


So, TH05 bomb animations. Just like the 📝 custom entity types of this game, all 4 characters share the same memory, with the superficially same 10-byte structure.
But let's just look at the very first field. Seen from a low level, it's a simple struct { int x, y; } pos, storing the current position of the character-specific bomb animation entity. But all 4 characters use this field differently:

Therefore, I decompiled it as 4 separate structures once again, bundled into an union of arrays.

As for Reimu… yup, that's some pointer arithmetic straight out of Jigoku* for setting and updating the positions of the falling star trails. :zunpet: While that certainly required several comments to wrap my head around the current array positions, the one "bug" in all this arithmetic luckily has no effect on the game.
There is a small glitch with the growing circles, though. They are spawned at the end of the loop, with their position taken from the star pointer… but after that pointer has already been incremented. On the last loop iteration, this leads to an out-of-bounds structure access, with the position taken from some unknown EX-Alice data, which is 0 during most of the game. If you look at the animation, you can easily spot these bugged circles, consistently growing from the top-left corner (0, 0) of the playfield:


After all that, there was barely enough remaining time to filter out and label the final few memory references. But now, TH05's MAIN.EXE is technically position-independent! 🎉 -Tom- is going to work on a pretty extensive demo of this unprecedented level of efficient Touhou game modding. For a more impactful effect of both the 100% PI mark and that demo, I'll be delaying the push covering the remaining false positives in that binary until that demo is done. I've accumulated a pretty huge backlog of minor maintenance issues by now…
Next up though: The first part of the long-awaited build system improvements. I've finally come up with a way of sanely accelerating the 32-bit build part on most setups you could possibly want to build ReC98 on, without making the building experience worse for the other few setups.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0096, P0097, P0098
Commits:
8ddb778...8283c5e, 8283c5e...600f036, 600f036...ad06748
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ pc98+ blitting+ gameplay+ player- shot+ jank+ mod+ tcc+

So, let's finally look at some TH01 gameplay structures! The obvious choices here are player shots and pellets, which are conveniently located in the last code segment. Covering these would therefore also help in transferring some first bits of data in REIIDEN.EXE from ASM land to C land. (Splitting the data segment would still be quite annoying.) Player shots are immediately at the beginning…

…but wait, these are drawn as transparent sprites loaded from .PTN files. Guess we first have to spend a push on 📝 Part 2 of this format.
Hm, 4 functions for alpha-masked blitting and unblitting of both 16×16 and 32×32 .PTN sprites that align the X coordinate to a multiple of 8 (remember, the PC-98 uses a planar VRAM memory layout, where 8 pixels correspond to a byte), but only one function that supports unaligned blitting to any X coordinate, and only for 16×16 sprites? Which is only called twice? And doesn't come with a corresponding unblitting function? :thonk:

Yeah, "unblitting". TH01 isn't double-buffered, and uses the PC-98's second VRAM page exclusively to store a stage's background and static sprites. Since the PC-98 has no hardware sprites, all you can do is write pixels into VRAM, and any animated sprite needs to be manually removed from VRAM at the beginning of each frame. Not using double-buffering theoretically allows TH01 to simply copy back all 128 KB of VRAM once per frame to do this. :tannedcirno: But that would be pretty wasteful, so TH01 just looks at all animated sprites, and selectively copies only their occupied pixels from the second to the first VRAM page.


Alright, player shot class methods… oh, wait, the collision functions directly act on the Yin-Yang Orb, so we first have to spend a push on that one. And that's where the impression we got from the .PTN functions is confirmed: The orb is, in fact, only ever displayed at byte-aligned X coordinates, divisible by 8. It's only thanks to the constant spinning that its movement appears at least somewhat smooth.
This is purely a rendering issue; internally, its position is tracked at pixel precision. Sadly, smooth orb rendering at any unaligned X coordinate wouldn't be that trivial of a mod, because well, the necessary functions for unaligned blitting and unblitting of 32×32 sprites don't exist in TH01's code. Then again, there's so much potential for optimization in this code, so it might be very possible to squeeze those additional two functions into the same C++ translation unit, even without position independence…

More importantly though, this was the right time to decompile the core functions controlling the orb physics – probably the highlight in these three pushes for most people.
Well, "physics". The X velocity is restricted to the 5 discrete states of -8, -4, 0, 4, and 8, and gravity is applied by simply adding 1 to the Y velocity every 5 frames :zunpet: No wonder that this can easily lead to situations in which the orb infinitely bounces from the ground.
At least fangame authors now have a reference of how ZUN did it originally, because really, this bad approximation of physics had to have been written that way on purpose. But hey, it uses 64-bit floating-point variables! :onricdennat:

…sometimes at least, and quite randomly. This was also where I had to learn about Turbo C++'s floating-point code generation, and how rigorously it defines the order of instructions when mixing double and float variables in arithmetic or conditional expressions. This meant that I could only get ZUN's original instruction order by using literal constants instead of variables, which is impossible right now without somehow splitting the data segment. In the end, I had to resort to spelling out ⅔ of one function, and one conditional branch of another, in inline ASM. 😕 If ZUN had just written 16.0 instead of 16.0f there, I would have saved quite some hours of my life trying to decompile this correctly…

To sort of make up for the slowdown in progress, here's the TH01 orb physics debug mod I made to properly understand them: 2020-06-13-TH01OrbPhysicsDebug.zip To use it, simply replace REIIDEN.EXE, and run the game in debug mode, via game d on the DOS prompt.
Its code might also serve as an example of how to achieve this sort of thing without position independence.


Alright, now it's time for player shots though. Yeah, sure, they don't move horizontally, so it's not too bad that those are also always rendered at byte-aligned positions. But, uh… why does this code only use the 16×16 alpha-masked unblitting function for decaying shots, and just sloppily unblits an entire 16×16 square everywhere else?

The worst part though: Unblitting, moving, and rendering player shots is done in a single function, in that order. And that's exactly where TH01's sprite flickering comes from. Since different types of sprites are free to overlap each other, you'd have to first unblit all types, then move all types, and then render all types, as done in later PC-98 Touhou games. If you do these three steps per-type instead, you will unblit sprites of other types that have been rendered before… and therefore end up with flicker.
Oh, and finally, ZUN also added an additional sloppy 16×16 square unblit call if a shot collides with a pellet or a boss, for some guaranteed flicker. Sigh.


And that's ⅓ of all ZUN code in TH01 decompiled! Next up: Pellets!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0071
Commits:
327021b...4bb04ab
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay+ player-

Turns out that covering TH03's 128-byte player structure was way more insightful than expected! And while it doesn't include every bit of per-player data, we still got to know quite a bit about the game from just trying to name its members:

The next TH03 pushes can now cover all the functions that reference this structure in one way or another, and actually commit all this research and translate it into some RE%. Since the non-TH05 priorities have become a bit unclear after the last 50 € RE contribution though (as of this writing, it's still 10 € to decide on what game to cover in two RE pushes!), I'll be returning to TH05 until that's decided.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0062
Commits:
1d6fbb8...f275e04
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ position-independence+ animation+

Big gains, as expected, but not much to say about this one. With TH05 Reimu being way too easy to decompile after 📝 the shot control groundwork done in October, there was enough time to give the comprehensive PI false-positive treatment to two other sets of functions present in TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE. One of them, master.lib's super_*() functions, was used a lot in TH02, more than in any other game… I wonder how much more that game will progress without even focusing on it in particular.

Alright then! 100% PI for TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE upcoming… (Edit: Already got funding to cover this!)

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0061
Commits:
96684f4...5f4f5d8
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay+ player- shot+ animation+

… nope, with a game whose MAIN.EXE is still just 5% reverse-engineered and which naturally makes heavy use of structures, there's still a lot more PI groundwork to be done before RE progress can speed up to the levels that we've now reached with TH05. The good news is that this game is (now) way easier to understand: In contrast to TH04 and TH05, where we needed to work towards player shots over a two-digit number of pushes, TH03 only needed two for SPRITE16, and a half one for the playfield shaking mechanism. After that, I could even already decompile the per-frame shot update and render functions, thanks to TH03's high number of code segments. Now, even the big 128-byte player structure doesn't seem all too far off.

Then again, as TH03 shares no code with any other game, this actually was a completely average PI push. For the remaining three, we'll return to TH04 and TH05 though, which should more than make up for the slight drop in RE speed after this one.

In other news, we've now also reached peak C++, with the introduction of templates! TH03 stores movement speeds in a 4.4 fixed-point format, which is an 8-bit spin on the usual 16-bit, 12.4 fixed-point format.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0036, P0037
Commits:
a533b5d...82b0e1d, 82b0e1d...e7e1cbc
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ tcc+

And just in time for zorg's last outstanding pushes, the TH05 shot type control functions made the speedup happen!

It would have been really nice to also include Reimu's shot control functions in this last push, but figuring out this entire system, with its weird bitflags and switch statement micro-optimizations, was once again taking way longer than it should have. Especially with my new-found insistence on turning this obvious copy-pasta into something somewhat readable and terse…

But with such a rather tabular visual structure, things should now be moddable in hopefully easily consistent way. Of course, since we're only at 54% position independence for MAIN.EXE, this isn't possible yet without crashing the game, but modifiying damage would already work.

Despite my earlier claims of ZUN only having used C++ in TH01, as it's the only game using new and delete, it's now pretty much confirmed that ZUN used it for all games, as inlined functions (and by extension, C++ class methods) are the only way to get certain instructions out of the Turbo C++ code generator. Also, I've kept my promise and started really filling that decompilation pattern file.

And now, with the reverse-engineering backlog finally being cleared out, we wait for the next orders, and the direction they might focus on…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0034, P0035
Commits:
6cdd229...6f1f367, 6f1f367...a533b5d
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ animation+ gameplay+ player- bomb+

Deathbombs confirmed, in both TH04 and TH05! On the surface, it's the same 8-frame window as in most Windows games, but due to the slightly lower PC-98 frame rate of 56.4 Hz, it's actually slightly more lenient in TH04 and TH05.

The last function in front of the TH05 shot type control functions marks the player's previous position in VRAM to be redrawn. But as it turns out, "player" not only means "the player's option satellites on shot levels ≥ 2", but also "the explosion animation if you lose a life", which required reverse-engineering both things, ultimately leading to the confirmation of deathbombs.

It actually was kind of surprising that we then had reverse-engineered everything related to rendering all three things mentioned above, and could also cover the player rendering function right now. Luckily, TH05 didn't decide to also micro-optimize that function into un-decompilability; in fact, it wasn't changed at all from TH04. Unlike the one invalidation function whose decompilation would have actually been the goal here…

But now, we've finally gotten to where we wanted to… and only got 2 outstanding decompilation pushes left. Time to get the website ready for hosting an actual crowdfunding campaign, I'd say – It'll make a better impression if people can still see things being delivered after the big announcement.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0047, P0048
Commits:
9a2c6f7...893bd46
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ animation+ waste+

So, let's continue with player shots! …eh, or maybe not directly, since they involve two other structure types in TH05, which we'd have to cover first. One of them is a different sort of sprite, and since I like me some context in my reverse-engineering, let's disable every other sprite type first to figure out what it is.

One of those other sprite types were the little sparks flying away from killed stage enemies, midbosses, and grazed bullets; easy enough to also RE right now. Turns out they use the same 8 hardcoded 8×8 sprites in TH02, TH04, and TH05. Except that it's actually 64 16×8 sprites, because ZUN wanted to pre-shift them for all 8 possible start pixels within a planar VRAM byte (rather than, like, just writing a few instructions to shift them programmatically), leading to them taking up 1,024 bytes rather than just 64.
Oh, and the thing I wanted to RE *actually* was the decay animation whenever a shot hits something. Not too complex either, especially since it's exclusive to TH05.

And since there was some time left and I actually have to pick some of the next RE places strategically to best prepare for the upcoming 17 decompilation pushes, here's two more function pointers for good measure.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0046
Commits:
612beb8...deb45ea
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ micro-optimization+ gameplay+ player- shot+

Stumbled across one more drawing function in the way… which was only a duplicated and seemingly pointlessly micro-optimized copy of master.lib's super_roll_put_tiny() function, used for fast display of 4-color 16×16 sprites.

With this out of the way, we can tackle player shot sprite animation next. This will get rid of a lot of code, since every power level of every character's shot type is implemented in its own function. Which makes up thousands of instructions in both TH04 and TH05 that we can nicely decompile in the future without going through a dedicated reverse-engineering step.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0018
Commits:
746681d...178d589
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- score+ uth05win+

What do you do if the TH06 text image feature for thcrap should have been done 3 days™ ago, but keeps getting more and more complex, and you have a ton of other pushes to deliver anyway? Get some distraction with some light ReC98 reverse-engineering work. This is where it becomes very obvious how much uth05win helps us with all the games, not just TH05.

5a5c347 is the most important one in there, this was the missing substructure that now makes every other sprite-like structure trivial to figure out.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0008
Commits:
47e5601...d62dd06
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+

You could use this to get a homing Mima, for example.