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Showing all posts tagged player-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0111, P0112
Commits:
8b5c146...4ef4c9e, 4ef4c9e...e447a2d
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- bomb+ boss+ ex-alice+ animation+ glitch+ jank+

Only one newly ordered push since I've reopened the store? Great, that's all the justification I needed for the extended maintenance delay that was part of these two pushes 😛

Having to write comments to explain whether coordinates are relative to the top-left corner of the screen or the top-left corner of the playfield has finally become old. So, I introduced distinct types for all the coordinate systems we typically encounter, applying them to all code decompiled so far. Note how the planar nature of PC-98 VRAM meant that X and Y coordinates also had to be different from each other. On the X side, there's mainly the distinction between the [0; 640] screen space and the corresponding [0; 80] VRAM byte space. On the Y side, we also have the [0; 400] screen space, but the visible area of VRAM might be limited to [0; 200] when running in the PC-98's line-doubled 640×200 mode. A VRAM Y coordinate also always implies an added offset for vertical scrolling.
During all of the code reconstruction, these types can only have a documenting purpose. Turning them into anything more than just typedefs to int, in order to define conversion operators between them, simply won't recompile into identical binaries. Modding and porting projects, however, now have a nice foundation for doing just that, and can entirely lift coordinate system transformations into the type system, without having to proofread all the meaningless int declarations themselves.


So, what was left in terms of memory references? EX-Alice's fire waves were our final unknown entity that can collide with the player. Decently implemented, with little to say about them.

That left the bomb animation structures as the one big remaining PI blocker. They started out nice and simple in TH04, with a small 6-byte star animation structure used for both Reimu and Marisa. TH05, however, gave each character her own animation… and what the hell is going on with Reimu's blue stars there? Nope, not going to figure this out on ASM level.

A decompilation first required some more bomb-related variables to be named though. Since this was part of a generic RE push, it made sense to do this in all 5 games… which then led to nice PI gains in anything but TH05. :tannedcirno: Most notably, we now got the "pulling all items to player" flag in TH04 and TH05, which is actually separate from bombing. The obvious cheat mod is left as an exercise to the reader.


So, TH05 bomb animations. Just like the 📝 custom entity types of this game, all 4 characters share the same memory, with the superficially same 10-byte structure.
But let's just look at the very first field. Seen from a low level, it's a simple struct { int x, y; } pos, storing the current position of the character-specific bomb animation entity. But all 4 characters use this field differently:

  • For Reimu's blue stars, it's the top-left position of each star, in the 12.4 fixed-point format. But unlike the vast majority of these values in TH04 and TH05, it's relative to the top-left corner of the screen, not the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel screen_x, screen_y; } topleft.
  • For Marisa's lasers, it's the center of each circle, as a regular 12.4 fixed-point coordinate, relative to the top-left corner of the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel x, y; } center.
  • For Mima's shrinking circles, it's the center of each circle in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } center.
  • For Yuuka's spinning heart, it's the top-left corner in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } topleft.
    And yes, singular. The game is actually smart enough to only store a single heart, and then create the rest of the circle on the fly. (If it were even smarter, it wouldn't even use this structure member, but oh well.)
Therefore, I decompiled it as 4 separate structures once again, bundled into an union of arrays.

As for Reimu… yup, that's some pointer arithmetic straight out of Jigoku* for setting and updating the positions of the falling star trails. :zunpet: While that certainly required several comments to wrap my head around the current array positions, the one "bug" in all this arithmetic luckily has no effect on the game.
There is a small glitch with the growing circles, though. They are spawned at the end of the loop, with their position taken from the star pointer… but after that pointer has already been incremented. On the last loop iteration, this leads to an out-of-bounds structure access, with the position taken from some unknown EX-Alice data, which is 0 during most of the game. If you look at the animation, you can easily spot these bugged circles, consistently growing from the top-left corner (0, 0) of the playfield:


After all that, there was barely enough remaining time to filter out and label the final few memory references. But now, TH05's MAIN.EXE is technically position-independent! 🎉 -Tom- is going to work on a pretty extensive demo of this unprecedented level of efficient Touhou game modding. For a more impactful effect of both the 100% PI mark and that demo, I'll be delaying the push covering the remaining false positives in that binary until that demo is done. I've accumulated a pretty huge backlog of minor maintenance issues by now…
Next up though: The first part of the long-awaited build system improvements. I've finally come up with a way of sanely accelerating the 32-bit build part on most setups you could possibly want to build ReC98 on, without making the building experience worse for the other few setups.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0096, P0097, P0098
Commits:
8ddb778...8283c5e, 8283c5e...600f036, 600f036...ad06748
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ pc98+ blitting+ gameplay+ player- shot+ jank+ mod+ tcc+

So, let's finally look at some TH01 gameplay structures! The obvious choices here are player shots and pellets, which are conveniently located in the last code segment. Covering these would therefore also help in transferring some first bits of data in REIIDEN.EXE from ASM land to C land. (Splitting the data segment would still be quite annoying.) Player shots are immediately at the beginning…

…but wait, these are drawn as transparent sprites loaded from .PTN files. Guess we first have to spend a push on 📝 Part 2 of this format.
Hm, 4 functions for alpha-masked blitting and unblitting of both 16×16 and 32×32 .PTN sprites that align the X coordinate to a multiple of 8 (remember, the PC-98 uses a planar VRAM memory layout, where 8 pixels correspond to a byte), but only one function that supports unaligned blitting to any X coordinate, and only for 16×16 sprites? Which is only called twice? And doesn't come with a corresponding unblitting function? :thonk:

Yeah, "unblitting". TH01 isn't double-buffered, and uses the PC-98's second VRAM page exclusively to store a stage's background and static sprites. Since the PC-98 has no hardware sprites, all you can do is write pixels into VRAM, and any animated sprite needs to be manually removed from VRAM at the beginning of each frame. Not using double-buffering theoretically allows TH01 to simply copy back all 128 KB of VRAM once per frame to do this. :tannedcirno: But that would be pretty wasteful, so TH01 just looks at all animated sprites, and selectively copies only their occupied pixels from the second to the first VRAM page.


Alright, player shot class methods… oh, wait, the collision functions directly act on the Yin-Yang Orb, so we first have to spend a push on that one. And that's where the impression we got from the .PTN functions is confirmed: The orb is, in fact, only ever displayed at byte-aligned X coordinates, divisible by 8. It's only thanks to the constant spinning that its movement appears at least somewhat smooth.
This is purely a rendering issue; internally, its position is tracked at pixel precision. Sadly, smooth orb rendering at any unaligned X coordinate wouldn't be that trivial of a mod, because well, the necessary functions for unaligned blitting and unblitting of 32×32 sprites don't exist in TH01's code. Then again, there's so much potential for optimization in this code, so it might be very possible to squeeze those additional two functions into the same C++ translation unit, even without position independence…

More importantly though, this was the right time to decompile the core functions controlling the orb physics – probably the highlight in these three pushes for most people.
Well, "physics". The X velocity is restricted to the 5 discrete states of -8, -4, 0, 4, and 8, and gravity is applied by simply adding 1 to the Y velocity every 5 frames :zunpet: No wonder that this can easily lead to situations in which the orb infinitely bounces from the ground.
At least fangame authors now have a reference of how ZUN did it originally, because really, this bad approximation of physics had to have been written that way on purpose. But hey, it uses 64-bit floating-point variables! :onricdennat:

…sometimes at least, and quite randomly. This was also where I had to learn about Turbo C++'s floating-point code generation, and how rigorously it defines the order of instructions when mixing double and float variables in arithmetic or conditional expressions. This meant that I could only get ZUN's original instruction order by using literal constants instead of variables, which is impossible right now without somehow splitting the data segment. In the end, I had to resort to spelling out ⅔ of one function, and one conditional branch of another, in inline ASM. 😕 If ZUN had just written 16.0 instead of 16.0f there, I would have saved quite some hours of my life trying to decompile this correctly…

To sort of make up for the slowdown in progress, here's the TH01 orb physics debug mod I made to properly understand them: 2020-06-13-TH01OrbPhysicsDebug.zip To use it, simply replace REIIDEN.EXE, and run the game in debug mode, via game d on the DOS prompt.
Its code might also serve as an example of how to achieve this sort of thing without position independence.


Alright, now it's time for player shots though. Yeah, sure, they don't move horizontally, so it's not too bad that those are also always rendered at byte-aligned positions. But, uh… why does this code only use the 16×16 alpha-masked unblitting function for decaying shots, and just sloppily unblits an entire 16×16 square everywhere else?

The worst part though: Unblitting, moving, and rendering player shots is done in a single function, in that order. And that's exactly where TH01's sprite flickering comes from. Since different types of sprites are free to overlap each other, you'd have to first unblit all types, then move all types, and then render all types, as done in later PC-98 Touhou games. If you do these three steps per-type instead, you will unblit sprites of other types that have been rendered before… and therefore end up with flicker.
Oh, and finally, ZUN also added an additional sloppy 16×16 square unblit call if a shot collides with a pellet or a boss, for some guaranteed flicker. Sigh.


And that's ⅓ of all ZUN code in TH01 decompiled! Next up: Pellets!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0071
Commits:
327021b...4bb04ab
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay+ player-

Turns out that covering TH03's 128-byte player structure was way more insightful than expected! And while it doesn't include every bit of per-player data, we still got to know quite a bit about the game from just trying to name its members:

  • 50 frames of invincibility when starting a new round
  • 110 frames of invincibility when getting hit
  • 64 frames of knockback when getting hit
  • 128 frames before a charged up gauge/boss attack is fired automatically
  • The damage a player will take from the next hit starts out at ½ heart at the beginning of each round, and increases by another ½ heart every 1024 frames, capped at a maximum of 3 hearts. This guarantees that a player will always survive at least two hits.
  • In Story Mode, hit damage is biased in favor of the player for the first 6 stages. The CPU will always take an additional 1½ hearts of damage in stages 1 and 2, 1 heart in stages 3 and 4, and ½ heart in stages 5 and 6, plus the above frame-based and capped damage amount. So while it's therefore possible to cause 4½ hearts of damage in Stages 1 and 2 if the first hit is somehow delayed for at least 5120 frames, you'd still win faster if the CPU gets hit as soon as possible.
  • CPU players will charge up a gauge/boss attack as soon as their gauge has reached a certain level. These levels are now proved to be random; at the start of every round, the game generates a sequence of 64 gauge level positions (from 1 to 4), separately for each player. If a round were to last long enough for a CPU player to fire all 64 of those predetermined attacks, you'd observe that sequence repeating.
    • Yes, that means that in theory, these levels can be RNG-manipulated. More details on that once we got this game's resident structure, where the seed is stored.
  • CPU players follow two main strategies: trying to not get hit, and… not quite doing that once they've survived for a certain safety threshold of frames. For the first 2000 frames of a round, this safety frame counter is reset to 0 every 64 frames, leading the CPU to switch quickly between the two strategies in the first few Story Mode stages on lower difficulties, where this safety threshold is less than 64. The calculation of the actual value is a bit more complex; more on that also once we got this game's resident structure.
  • Section 13 of 夢時空.TXT states that Boss Attacks are only counted towards the Clear Bonus if they were caused by reaching a certain number of spell points. This is incorrect; manually charged Level 4 Boss Attacks are counted as well.

The next TH03 pushes can now cover all the functions that reference this structure in one way or another, and actually commit all this research and translate it into some RE%. Since the non-TH05 priorities have become a bit unclear after the last 50 € RE contribution though (as of this writing, it's still 10 € to decide on what game to cover in two RE pushes!), I'll be returning to TH05 until that's decided.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0062
Commits:
1d6fbb8...f275e04
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ position-independence+ animation+

Big gains, as expected, but not much to say about this one. With TH05 Reimu being way too easy to decompile after 📝 the shot control groundwork done in October, there was enough time to give the comprehensive PI false-positive treatment to two other sets of functions present in TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE. One of them, master.lib's super_*() functions, was used a lot in TH02, more than in any other game… I wonder how much more that game will progress without even focusing on it in particular.

Alright then! 100% PI for TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE upcoming… (Edit: Already got funding to cover this!)

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0061
Commits:
96684f4...5f4f5d8
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay+ player- shot+ animation+

… nope, with a game whose MAIN.EXE is still just 5% reverse-engineered and which naturally makes heavy use of structures, there's still a lot more PI groundwork to be done before RE progress can speed up to the levels that we've now reached with TH05. The good news is that this game is (now) way easier to understand: In contrast to TH04 and TH05, where we needed to work towards player shots over a two-digit number of pushes, TH03 only needed two for SPRITE16, and a half one for the playfield shaking mechanism. After that, I could even already decompile the per-frame shot update and render functions, thanks to TH03's high number of code segments. Now, even the big 128-byte player structure doesn't seem all too far off.

Then again, as TH03 shares no code with any other game, this actually was a completely average PI push. For the remaining three, we'll return to TH04 and TH05 though, which should more than make up for the slight drop in RE speed after this one.

In other news, we've now also reached peak C++, with the introduction of templates! TH03 stores movement speeds in a 4.4 fixed-point format, which is an 8-bit spin on the usual 16-bit, 12.4 fixed-point format.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0036, P0037
Commits:
a533b5d...82b0e1d, 82b0e1d...e7e1cbc
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ tcc+

And just in time for zorg's last outstanding pushes, the TH05 shot type control functions made the speedup happen!

  • TH05 as a whole is now 20% reverse-engineered, and 50% position independent,
  • TH05's MAIN.EXE is now even below TH02's in terms of not yet RE'd instructions,
  • and all price estimates have now fallen significantly.

It would have been really nice to also include Reimu's shot control functions in this last push, but figuring out this entire system, with its weird bitflags and switch statement micro-optimizations, was once again taking way longer than it should have. Especially with my new-found insistence on turning this obvious copy-pasta into something somewhat readable and terse…

But with such a rather tabular visual structure, things should now be moddable in hopefully easily consistent way. Of course, since we're only at 54% position independence for MAIN.EXE, this isn't possible yet without crashing the game, but modifiying damage would already work.

Despite my earlier claims of ZUN only having used C++ in TH01, as it's the only game using new and delete, it's now pretty much confirmed that ZUN used it for all games, as inlined functions (and by extension, C++ class methods) are the only way to get certain instructions out of the Turbo C++ code generator. Also, I've kept my promise and started really filling that decompilation pattern file.

And now, with the reverse-engineering backlog finally being cleared out, we wait for the next orders, and the direction they might focus on…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0034, P0035
Commits:
6cdd229...6f1f367, 6f1f367...a533b5d
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ animation+ gameplay+ player- bomb+

Deathbombs confirmed, in both TH04 and TH05! On the surface, it's the same 8-frame window as in most Windows games, but due to the slightly lower PC-98 frame rate of 56.4 Hz, it's actually slightly more lenient in TH04 and TH05.

The last function in front of the TH05 shot type control functions marks the player's previous position in VRAM to be redrawn. But as it turns out, "player" not only means "the player's option satellites on shot levels ≥ 2", but also "the explosion animation if you lose a life", which required reverse-engineering both things, ultimately leading to the confirmation of deathbombs.

It actually was kind of surprising that we then had reverse-engineered everything related to rendering all three things mentioned above, and could also cover the player rendering function right now. Luckily, TH05 didn't decide to also micro-optimize that function into un-decompilability; in fact, it wasn't changed at all from TH04. Unlike the one invalidation function whose decompilation would have actually been the goal here…

But now, we've finally gotten to where we wanted to… and only got 2 outstanding decompilation pushes left. Time to get the website ready for hosting an actual crowdfunding campaign, I'd say – It'll make a better impression if people can still see things being delivered after the big announcement.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0047, P0048
Commits:
9a2c6f7...893bd46
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+ animation+ waste+

So, let's continue with player shots! …eh, or maybe not directly, since they involve two other structure types in TH05, which we'd have to cover first. One of them is a different sort of sprite, and since I like me some context in my reverse-engineering, let's disable every other sprite type first to figure out what it is.

One of those other sprite types were the little sparks flying away from killed stage enemies, midbosses, and grazed bullets; easy enough to also RE right now. Turns out they use the same 8 hardcoded 8×8 sprites in TH02, TH04, and TH05. Except that it's actually 64 16×8 sprites, because ZUN wanted to pre-shift them for all 8 possible start pixels within a planar VRAM byte (rather than, like, just writing a few instructions to shift them programmatically), leading to them taking up 1,024 bytes rather than just 64.
Oh, and the thing I wanted to RE *actually* was the decay animation whenever a shot hits something. Not too complex either, especially since it's exclusive to TH05.

And since there was some time left and I actually have to pick some of the next RE places strategically to best prepare for the upcoming 17 decompilation pushes, here's two more function pointers for good measure.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0046
Commits:
612beb8...deb45ea
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ micro-optimization+ gameplay+ player- shot+

Stumbled across one more drawing function in the way… which was only a duplicated and seemingly pointlessly micro-optimized copy of master.lib's super_roll_put_tiny() function, used for fast display of 4-color 16×16 sprites.

With this out of the way, we can tackle player shot sprite animation next. This will get rid of a lot of code, since every power level of every character's shot type is implemented in its own function. Which makes up thousands of instructions in both TH04 and TH05 that we can nicely decompile in the future without going through a dedicated reverse-engineering step.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0018
Commits:
746681d...178d589
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- score+ uth05win+

What do you do if the TH06 text image feature for thcrap should have been done 3 days™ ago, but keeps getting more and more complex, and you have a ton of other pushes to deliver anyway? Get some distraction with some light ReC98 reverse-engineering work. This is where it becomes very obvious how much uth05win helps us with all the games, not just TH05.

5a5c347 is the most important one in there, this was the missing substructure that now makes every other sprite-like structure trivial to figure out.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0008
Commits:
47e5601...d62dd06
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player- shot+

You could use this to get a homing Mima, for example.