⮜ Blog

⮜ List of tags

Showing all posts tagged micro-optimization-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0146
Commits:
08bc188...456b621
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th05+ tcc+ animation+ boss+ shinki+ micro-optimization- waste+ uth05win+

Y'know, I kinda prefer the pending crowdfunded workload to stay more near the middle of the cap, rather than being sold out all the time. So to reach this point more quickly, let's do the most relaxing thing that can be easily done in TH05 right now: The boss backgrounds, starting with Shinki's, 📝 now that we've got the time to look at it in detail.

… Oh come on, more things that are borderline undecompilable, and require new workarounds to be developed? Yup, Borland C++ always optimizes any comparison of a register with a literal 0 to OR reg, reg, no matter how many calculations and inlined function calls you replace the 0 with. Shinki's background particle rendering function contains a CMP AX, 0 instruction though… so yeah, 📝 yet another piece of custom ASM that's worse than what Turbo C++ 4.0J would have generated if ZUN had just written readable C. This was probably motivated by ZUN insisting that his modified master.lib function for blitting particles takes its X and Y parameters as registers. If he had just used the __fastcall convention, he also would have got the sprite ID passed as a register. 🤷
So, we really don't want to be forced into inline assembly just because of the third comparison in the otherwise perfectly decompilable four-comparison if() expression that prevents invisible particles from being drawn. The workaround: Comparing to a pointer instead, which only the linker gets to resolve to the actual value of 0. :tannedcirno: This way, the compiler has to make room for any 16-bit literal, and can't optimize anything.


And then we go straight from micro-optimization to waste, with all the duplication in the code that animates all those particles together with the zooming and spinning lines. This push decompiled 1.31% of all code in TH05, and thanks to alignment, we're still missing Shinki's high-level background rendering function that calls all the subfunctions I decompiled here.
With all the manipulated state involved here, it's not at all trivial to see how this code produces what you see in-game. Like:

  1. If all lines have the same Y velocity, how do the other three lines in background type B get pushed down into this vertical formation while the top one stays still? (Answer: This velocity is only applied to the top line, the other lines are only pushed based on some delta.)
  2. How can this delta be calculated based on the distance of the top line with its supposed target point around Shinki's wings? (Answer: The velocity is never set to 0, so the top line overshoots this target point in every frame. After calculating the delta, the top line itself is pushed down as well, canceling out the movement. :zunpet:)
  3. Why don't they get pushed down infinitely, but stop eventually? (Answer: We only see four lines out of 20, at indices #0, #6, #12, and #18. In each frame, lines [0..17] are copied to lines [1..18], before anything gets moved. The invisible lines are pushed down based on the delta as well, which defines a distance between the visible lines of (velocity * array gap). And since the velocity is capped at -14 pixels per frame, this also means a maximum distance of 84 pixels between the midpoints of each line.)
  4. And why are the lines moving back up when switching to background type C, before moving down? (Answer: Because type C increases the velocity rather than decreasing it. Therefore, it relies on the previous velocity state from type B to show a gapless animation.)
So yeah, it's a nice-looking effect, just very hard to understand. 😵

With the amount of effort I'm putting into this project, I typically gravitate towards more descriptive function names. Here, however, uth05win's simple and seemingly tiny-brained "background type A/B/C/D" was quite a smart choice. It clearly defines the sequence in which these animations are intended to be shown, and as we've seen with point 4 from the list above, that does indeed matter.

Next up: At least EX-Alice's background animations, and probably also the high-level parts of the background rendering for all the other TH05 bosses.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0138
Commits:
8d953dc...864e864
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th03+ th04+ micro-optimization- file-format+ waste+

Technical debt, part 9… and as it turns out, it's highly impractical to repay 100% of it at this point in development. 😕

The reason: graph_putsa_fx(), ZUN's function for rendering optionally boldfaced text to VRAM using the font ROM glyphs, in its ridiculously micro-optimized TH04 and TH05 version. This one sets the "callback function" for applying the boldface effect by self-modifying the target of two CALL rel16 instructions… because there really wasn't any free register left for an indirect CALL, eh? The necessary distance, from the call site to the function itself, has to be calculated at assembly time, by subtracting the target function label from the call site label.
This usually wouldn't be a problem… if ZUN didn't store the resulting lookup tables in the .DATA segment. With code segments, we can easily split them at pretty much any point between functions because there are multiple of them. But there's only a single .DATA segment, with all ZUN and master.lib data sandwiched between Borland C++'s crt0 at the top, and Borland C++'s library functions at the bottom of the segment. Adding another split point would require all data after that point to be moved to its own translation unit, which in turn requires EXTERN references in the big .ASM file to all that moved data… in short, it would turn the codebase into an even greater mess.
Declaring the labels as EXTERN wouldn't work either, since the linker can't do fancy arithmetic and is limited to simply replacing address placeholders with one single address. So, we're now stuck with this function at the bottom of the SHARED segment, for the foreseeable future.


We can still continue to separate functions off the top of that segment, though. Pretty much the only thing noteworthy there, so far: TH04's code for loading stage tile images from .MPN files, which we hadn't reverse-engineered so far, and which nicely fit into one of Blue Bolt's pending ⅓ RE contributions. Yup, we finally moved the RE% bars again! If only for a tiny bit. :tannedcirno:
Both TH02 and TH05 simply store one pointer to one dynamically allocated memory block for all tile images, as well as the number of images, in the data segment. TH04, on the other hand, reserves memory for 8 .MPN slots, complete with their color palettes, even though it only ever uses the first one of these. There goes another 458 bytes of conventional RAM… I should start summing up all the waste we've seen so far. Let's put the next website contribution towards a tagging system for these blog posts.

At 86% of technical debt in the SHARED segment repaid, we aren't quite done yet, but the rest is mostly just TH04 needing to catch up with functions we've already separated. Next up: Getting to that practical 98.5% point. Since this is very likely to not require a full push, I'll also decompile some more actual TH04 and TH05 game code I previously reverse-engineered – and after that, reopen the store!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0135, P0136
Commits:
a6eed55...252c13d, 252c13d...07bfcf2
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ kaja+ menu+ micro-optimization- bug+ tcc+

Alright, no more big code maintenance tasks that absolutely need to be done right now. Time to really focus on parts 6 and 7 of repaying technical debt, right? Except that we don't get to speed up just yet, as TH05's barely decompilable PMD file loading function is rather… complicated.
Fun fact: Whenever I see an unusual sequence of x86 instructions in PC-98 Touhou, I first consult the disassembly of Wolfenstein 3D. That game was originally compiled with the quite similar Borland C++ 3.0, so it's quite helpful to compare its ASM to the officially released source code. If I find the instructions in question, they mostly come from that game's ASM code, leading to the amusing realization that "even John Carmack was unable to get these instructions out of this compiler" :onricdennat: This time though, Wolfenstein 3D did point me to Borland's intrinsics for common C functions like memcpy() and strchr(), available via #pragma intrinsic. Bu~t those unfortunately still generate worse code than what ZUN micro-optimized here. Commenting how these sequences of instructions should look in C is unfortunately all I could do here.
The conditional branches in this function did compile quite nicely though, clarifying the control flow, and clearly exposing a ZUN bug: TH05's snd_load() will hang in an infinite loop when trying to load a non-existing -86 BGM file (with a .M2 extension) if the corresponding -26 BGM file (with a .M extension) doesn't exist either.

Unsurprisingly, the PMD channel monitoring code in TH05's Music Room remains undecompilable outside the two most "high-level" initialization and rendering functions. And it's not because there's data in the middle of the code segment – that would have actually been possible with some #pragmas to ensure that the data and code segments have the same name. As soon as the SI and DI registers are referenced anywhere, Turbo C++ insists on emitting prolog code to save these on the stack at the beginning of the function, and epilog code to restore them from there before returning. Found that out in September 2019, and confirmed that there's no way around it. All the small helper functions here are quite simply too optimized, throwing away any concern for such safety measures. 🤷
Oh well, the two functions that were decompilable at least indicate that I do try.


Within that same 6th push though, we've finally reached the one function in TH05 that was blocking further progress in TH04, allowing that game to finally catch up with the others in terms of separated translation units. Feels good to finally delete more of those .ASM files we've decompiled a while ago… finally!

But since that was just getting started, the most satisfying development in both of these pushes actually came from some more experiments with macros and inline functions for near-ASM code. By adding "unused" dummy parameters for all relevant registers, the exact input registers are made more explicit, which might help future port authors who then maybe wouldn't have to look them up in an x86 instruction reference quite as often. At its best, this even allows us to declare certain functions with the __fastcall convention and express their parameter lists as regular C, with no additional pseudo-registers or macros required.
As for output registers, Turbo C++'s code generation turns out to be even more amazing than previously thought when it comes to returning pseudo-registers from inline functions. A nice example for how this can improve readability can be found in this piece of TH02 code for polling the PC-98 keyboard state using a BIOS interrupt:

inline uint8_t keygroup_sense(uint8_t group) {
	_AL = group;
	_AH = 0x04;
	geninterrupt(0x18);
	// This turns the output register of this BIOS call into the return value
	// of this function. Surprisingly enough, this does *not* naively generate
	// the `MOV AL, AH` instruction you might expect here!
	return _AH;
}

void input_sense(void)
{
	// As a result, this assignment becomes `_AH = _AH`, which Turbo C++
	// never emits as such, giving us only the three instructions we need.
	_AH = keygroup_sense(8);

	// Whereas this one gives us the one additional `MOV BH, AH` instruction
	// we'd expect, and nothing more.
	_BH = keygroup_sense(7);

	// And now it's obvious what both of these registers contain, from just
	// the assignments above.
	if(_BH & K7_ARROW_UP || _AH & K8_NUM_8) {
		key_det |= INPUT_UP;
	}
	// […]
}

I love it. No inline assembly, as close to idiomatic C code as something like this is going to get, yet still compiling into the minimum possible number of x86 instructions on even a 1994 compiler. This is how I keep this project interesting for myself during chores like these. :tannedcirno: We might have even reached peak inline already?

And that's 65% of technical debt in the SHARED segment repaid so far. Next up: Two more of these, which might already complete that segment? Finally!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0134
Commits:
1d5db71...a6eed55
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th05+ blitting+ portability+ micro-optimization- jank+ tasm+ tcc+

Technical debt, part 5… and we only got TH05's stupidly optimized .PI functions this time?

As far as actual progress is concerned, that is. In maintenance news though, I was really hyped for the #include improvements I've mentioned in 📝 the last post. The result: A new x86real.h file, bundling all the declarations specific to the 16-bit x86 Real Mode in a smaller file than Turbo C++'s own DOS.H. After all, DOS is something else than the underlying CPU. And while it didn't speed up build times quite as much as I had hoped, it now clearly indicates the x86-specific parts of PC-98 Touhou code to future port authors.

After another couple of improvements to parameter declaration in ASM land, we get to TH05's .PI functions… and really, why did ZUN write all of them in ASM? Why (re)declare all the necessary structures and data in ASM land, when all these functions are merely one layer of abstraction above master.lib, which does all the actual work?
I get that ZUN might have wanted masked blitting to be faster, which is used for the fade-in effect seen during TH05's main menu animation and the ending artwork. But, uh… he knew how to modify master.lib. In fact, he did already modify the graph_pack_put_8() function used for rendering a single .PI image row, to ignore master.lib's VRAM clipping region. For this effect though, he first blits each row regularly to the invisible 400th row of VRAM, and then does an EGC-accelerated VRAM-to-VRAM blit of that row to its actual target position with the mask enabled. It would have been way more efficient to add another version of this function that takes a mask pattern. No amount of REP MOVSW is going to change the fact that two VRAM writes per line are slower than a single one. Not to mention that it doesn't justify writing every other .PI function in ASM to go along with it…
This is where we also find the most hilarious aspect about this: For most of ZUN's pointless micro-optimizations, you could have maybe made the argument that they do save some CPU cycles here and there, and therefore did something positive to the final, PC-98-exclusive result. But some of the hand-written ASM here doesn't even constitute a micro-optimization, because it's worse than what you would have got out of even Turbo C++ 4.0J with its 80386 optimization flags! :zunpet:

At least it was possible to "decompile" 6 out of the 10 functions here, making them easy to clean up for future modders and port authors. Could have been 7 functions if I also decided to "decompile" pi_free(), but all the C++ code is already surrounded by ASM, resulting in 2 ASM translation units and 2 C++ translation units. pi_free() would have needed a single translation unit by itself, which wasn't worth it, given that I would have had to spell out every single ASM instruction anyway.

void pascal pi_free(int slot)
{
	if(pi_buffers[slot]) {
		graph_pi_free(&pi_headers[slot], &pi_buffers[slot]);
		pi_buffers[slot] = NULL;
	}
}

There you go. What about this needed to be written in ASM?!?

The function calls between these small translation units even seemed to glitch out TASM and the linker in the end, leading to one CALL offset being weirdly shifted by 32 bytes. Usually, TLINK reports a fixup overflow error when this happens, but this time it didn't, for some reason? Mirroring the segment grouping in the affected translation unit did solve the problem, and I already knew this, but only thought of it after spending quite some RTFM time… during which I discovered the -lE switch, which enables TLINK to use the expanded dictionaries in Borland's .OBJ and .LIB files to speed up linking. That shaved off roughly another second from the build time of the complete ReC98 repository. The more you know… Binary blobs compiled with non-Borland tools would be the only reason not to use this flag.

So, even more slowdown with this 5th dedicated push, since we've still only repaid 41% of the technical debt in the SHARED segment so far. Next up: Part 6, which hopefully manages to decompile the FM and SSG channel animations in TH05's Music Room, and hopefully ends up being the final one of the slow ones.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0133
Commits:
045450c...1d5db71
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ micro-optimization- master.lib+ tcc+

Wow, 31 commits in a single push? Well, what the last push had in progress, this one had in maintenance. The 📝 master.lib header transition absolutely had to be completed in this one, for my own sanity. And indeed, it reduced the build time for the entirety of ReC98 to about 27 seconds on my system, just as expected in the original announcement. Looking forward to even faster build times with the upcoming #include improvements I've got up my sleeve! The port authors of the future are going to appreciate those quite a bit.

As for the new translation units, the funniest one is probably TH05's function for blitting the 1-color .CDG images used for the main menu options. Which is so optimized that it becomes decompilable again, by ditching the self-modifying code of its TH04 counterpart in favor of simply making better use of CPU registers. The resulting C code is still a mess, but what can you do. :tannedcirno:
This was followed by even more TH05 functions that clearly weren't compiled from C, as evidenced by their padding bytes. It's about time I've documented my lack of ideas of how to get those out of Turbo C++. :onricdennat:

And just like in the previous push, I also had to 📝 throw away a decompiled TH02 function purely due to alignment issues. Couldn't have been a better one though, no one's going to miss a residency check for the MMD driver that is largely identical to the corresponding (and indeed decompilable) function for the PMD driver. Both of those should have been merged into a single function anyway, given how they also mutate the game's sound configuration flags…

In the end, I've slightly slowed down with this one, with only 37% of technical debt done after this 4th dedicated push. Next up: One more of these, centered around TH05's stupidly optimized .PI functions. Maybe also with some more reverse-engineering, after not having done any for 1½ months?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0126, P0127
Commits:
6c22af7...8b01657, 8b01657...dc65b59
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ th04+ th05+ pc98+ micro-optimization- tcc+ tasm+ meta+

Alright, back to continuing the master.hpp transition started in P0124, and repaying technical debt. The last blog post already announced some ridiculous decompilations… and in fact, not a single one of the functions in these two pushes was decompilable into idiomatic C/C++ code.

As usual, that didn't keep me from trying though. The TH04 and TH05 version of the infamous 16-pixel-aligned, EGC-accelerated rectangle blitting function from page 1 to page 0 was fairly average as far as unreasonable decompilations are concerned.
The big blocker in TH03's MAIN.EXE, however, turned out to be the .MRS functions, used to render the gauge attack portraits and bomb backgrounds. The blitting code there uses the additional FS and GS segment registers provided by the Intel 386… which

  1. are not supported by Turbo C++'s inline assembler, and
  2. can't be turned into pointers, due to a compiler bug in Turbo C++ that generates wrong segment prefix opcodes for the _FS and _GS pseudo-registers.

Apparently I'm the first one to even try doing that with this compiler? I haven't found any other mention of this bug…
Compiling via assembly (#pragma inline) would work around this bug and generate the correct instructions. But that would incur yet another dependency on a 16-bit TASM, for something honestly quite insignificant.

What we can always do, however, is using __emit__() to simply output x86 opcodes anywhere in a function. Unlike spelled-out inline assembly, that can even be used in helper functions that are supposed to inline… which does in fact allow us to fully abstract away this compiler bug. Regular if() comparisons with pseudo-registers wouldn't inline, but "converting" them into C++ template function specializations does. All that's left is some C preprocessor abuse to turn the pseudo-registers into types, and then we do retain a normal-looking poke() call in the blitting functions in the end. 🤯

Yeah… the result is batshit insane. I may have gone too far in a few places…


One might certainly argue that all these ridiculous decompilations actually hurt the preservation angle of this project. "Clearly, ZUN couldn't have possibly written such unreasonable C++ code. So why pretend he did, and not just keep it all in its more natural ASM form?" Well, there are several reasons:

  • Future port authors will merely have to translate all the pseudo-registers and inline assembly to C++. For the former, this is typically as easy as replacing them with newly declared local variables. No need to bother with function prolog and epilog code, calling conventions, or the build system.
  • No duplication of constants and structures in ASM land.
  • As a more expressive language, C++ can document the code much better. Meticulous documentation seems to have become the main attraction of ReC98 these days – I've seen it appreciated quite a number of times, and the continued financial support of all the backers speaks volumes. Mods, on the other hand, are still a rather rare sight.
  • Having as few .ASM files in the source tree as possible looks better to casual visitors who just look at GitHub's repo language breakdown. This way, ReC98 will also turn from an "Assembly project" to its rightful state of "C++ project" much sooner.
  • And finally, it's not like the ASM versions are gone – they're still part of the Git history.

Unfortunately, these pushes also demonstrated a second disadvantage in trying to decompile everything possible: Since Turbo C++ lacks TASM's fine-grained ability to enforce code alignment on certain multiples of bytes, it might actually be unfeasible to link in a C-compiled object file at its intended original position in some of the .EXE files it's used in. Which… you're only going to notice once you encounter such a case. Due to the slightly jumbled order of functions in the 📝 second, shared code segment, that might be long after you decompiled and successfully linked in the function everywhere else.

And then you'll have to throw away that decompilation after all 😕 Oh well. In this specific case (the lookup table generator for horizontally flipping images), that decompilation was a mess anyway, and probably helped nobody. I could have added a dummy .OBJ that does nothing but enforce the needed 2-byte alignment before the function if I really insisted on keeping the C version, but it really wasn't worth it.


Now that I've also described yet another meta-issue, maybe there'll really be nothing to say about the next technical debt pushes? :onricdennat: Next up though: Back to actual progress again, with TH01. Which maybe even ends up pushing that game over the 50% RE mark?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0119
Commits:
cbf14eb...453dd3c
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ menu+ file-format+ hidden-content+ micro-optimization-

So, TH05 OP.EXE. The first half of this push started out nicely, with an easy decompilation of the entire player character selection menu. Typical ZUN quality, with not much to say about it. While the overall function structure is identical to its TH04 counterpart, the two games only really share small snippets inside these functions, and do need to be RE'd separately.

The high score viewing (not registration) menu would have been next. Unfortunately, it calls one of the GENSOU.SCR loading functions… which are all a complete mess that still needed to be sorted out first. 5 distinct functions in 6 binaries, and of course TH05 also micro-optimized its MAIN.EXE version to directly use the DOS INT 21h file loading API instead of master.lib's wrappers. Could have all been avoided with a single method on the score data structure, taking a player character ID and a difficulty level as parameters…

So, no score menu in this push then. Looking at the other end of the ASM code though, we find the starting functions for the main game, the Extra Stage, and the demo replays, which did fit perfectly to round out this push.

Which is where we find an easter egg! 🥚 The hidden 5th demo replay, DEMO5.REC, is actually a full Extra Stage clear with Mima, with 3 bombs and 1 death, obviously recorded by ZUN himself. To watch it without modding the game, unlock the Extra Stage with all 4 characters, then hold both the ⬅️ left and ➡️ right arrow keys in the main menu while waiting for the usual demo replay. I can't possibly be the first one to discover this, but I couldn't find any other mention of it.
Edit (2021-03-15): ZUN did in fact document this replay in Section 6 of TH05's OMAKE.TXT, along with the exact method to view it. Thanks to Popfan for the discovery!

Here's a recording of the whole replay:

Note how the boss dialogue is skipped. MAIN.EXE actually contains no less than 6 if() branches just to distinguish this overly long replay from the regular ones.


I'd really like to do the TH04 and TH05 main menus in parallel, since we can expect a bit more shared code after all the initial differences. Therefore, I'm going to put the next "anything" push towards covering the TH04 version of those functions. Next up though, it's back to TH01, with more redundant image format code…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0109
Commits:
dcf4e2c...2c7d86b
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ bullet+ micro-optimization- glitch+ uth05win+ tasm+

Back to TH05! Thanks to the good funding situation, I can strike a nice balance between getting TH05 position-independent as quickly as possible, and properly reverse-engineering some missing important parts of the game. Once 100% PI will get the attention of modders, the code will then be in better shape, and a bit more usable than if I just rushed that goal.

By now, I'm apparently also pretty spoiled by TH01's immediate decompilability, after having worked on that game for so long. Reverse-engineering in ASM land is pretty annoying, after all, since it basically boils down to meticulously editing a piece of ASM into something I can confidently call "reverse-engineered". Most of the time, simply decompiling that piece of code would take just a little bit longer, but be massively more useful. So, I immediately tried decompiling with TH05… and it just worked, at every place I tried!? Whatever the issue was that made 📝 segment splitting so annoying at my first attempt, I seem to have completely solved it in the meantime. 🤷 So yeah, backers can now request pretty much any part of TH04 and TH05 to be decompiled immediately, with no additional segment splitting cost.

(Protip for everyone interested in starting their own ReC project: Just declare one segment per function, right from the start, then group them together to restore the original code segmentation…)


Except that TH05 then just throws more of its infamous micro-optimized and undecompilable ASM at you. 🙄 This push covered the function that adjusts the bullet group template based on rank and the selected difficulty, called every time such a group is configured. Which, just like pretty much all of TH05's bullet spawning code, is one of those undecompilable functions. If C allowed labels of other functions as goto targets, it might have been decompilable into something useful to modders… maybe. But like this, there's no point in even trying.

This is such a terrible idea from a software architecture point of view, I can't even. Because now, you suddenly have to mirror your C++ declarations in ASM land, and keep them in sync with each other. I'm always happy when I get to delete an ASM declaration from the codebase once I've decompiled all the instances where it was referenced. But for TH05, we now have to keep those declarations around forever. 😕 And all that for a performance increase you probably couldn't even measure. Oh well, pulling off Galaxy Brain-level ASM optimizations is kind of fun if you don't have portability plans… I guess?

If I started a full fangame mod of a PC-98 Touhou game, I'd base it on TH04 rather than TH05, and backport selective features from TH05 as needed. Just because it was released later doesn't make it better, and this is by far not the only one of ZUN's micro-optimizations that just went way too far.

Dropping down to ASM also makes it easier to introduce weird quirks. Decompiled, one of TH05's tuning conditions for stack groups on Easy Mode would look something like:

case BP_STACK:
	// […]
	if(spread_angle_delta >= 2) {
		stack_bullet_count--;
	}
The fields of the bullet group template aren't typically reset when setting up a new group. So, spread_angle_delta in the context of a stack group effectively refers to "the delta angle of the last spread group that was fired before this stack – whenever that was". uth05win also spotted this quirk, considered it a bug, and wrote fanfiction by changing spread_angle_delta to stack_bullet_count.
As usual for functions that occur in more than one game, I also decompiled the TH04 bullet group tuning function, and it's perfectly sane, with no such quirks.


In the more PI-focused parts of this push, we got the TH05-exclusive smooth boss movement functions, for flying randomly or towards a given point. Pretty unspectacular for the most part, but we've got yet another uth05win inconsistency in the latter one. Once the Y coordinate gets close enough to the target point, it actually speeds up twice as much as the X coordinate would, whereas uth05win used the same speedup factors for both. This might make uth05win a couple of frames slower in all boss fights from Stage 3 on. Hard to measure though – and boss movement partly depends on RNG anyway.


Next up: Shinki's background animations – which are actually the single biggest source of position dependence left in TH05.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0072, P0073, P0074, P0075
Commits:
4bb04ab...cea3ea6, cea3ea6...5286417, 5286417...1807906, 1807906...222fc99
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-, Myles
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ blitting+ bullet+ micro-optimization- uth05win+

Long time no see! And this is exactly why I've been procrastinating bullets while there was still meaningful progress to be had in other parts of TH04 and TH05: There was bound to be quite some complexity in this most central piece of game logic, and so I couldn't possibly get to a satisfying understanding in just one push.

Or in two, because their rendering involves another bunch of micro-optimized functions adapted from master.lib.

Or in three, because we'd like to actually name all the bullet sprites, since there are a number of sprite ID-related conditional branches. And so, I was refining things I supposedly RE'd in the the commits from the first push until the very end of the fourth.

When we talk about "bullets" in TH04 and TH05, we mean just two things: the white 8×8 pellets, with a cap of 240 in TH04 and 180 in TH05, and any 16×16 sprites from MIKO16.BFT, with a cap of 200 in TH04 and 220 in TH05. These are by far the most common types of… err, "things the player can collide with", and so ZUN provides a whole bunch of pre-made motion, animation, and n-way spread / ring / stack group options for those, which can be selected by simply setting a few fields in the bullet template. All the other "non-bullets" have to be fired and controlled individually.

Which is nothing new, since uth05win covered this part pretty accurately – I don't think anyone could just make up these structure member overloads. The interesting insights here all come from applying this research to TH04, and figuring out its differences compared to TH05. The most notable one there is in the default groups: TH05 allows you to add a stack to any single bullet, n-way spread or ring, but TH04 only lets you create stacks separately from n-way spreads and rings, and thus gets by with fewer fields in its bullet template structure. On the other hand, TH04 has a separate "n-way spread with random angles, yet still aimed at the player" group? Which seems to be unused, at least as far as midbosses and bosses are concerned; can't say anything about stage enemies yet.

In fact, TH05's larger bullet template structure illustrates that these distinct group types actually are a rather redundant piece of over-engineering. You can perfectly indicate any permutation of the basic groups through just the stack bullet count (1 = no stack), spread bullet count (1 = no spread), and spread delta angle (0 = ring instead of spread). Add a 4-flag bitfield to cover the rest (aim to player, randomize angle, randomize speed, force single bullet regardless of difficulty or rank), and the result would be less redundant and even slightly more capable.

Even those 4 pushes didn't quite finish all of the bullet-related types, stopping just shy of the most trivial and consistent enum that defines special movement. This also left us in a 📝 TH03-like situation, in which we're still a bit away from actually converting all this research into actual RE%. Oh well, at least this got us way past 50% in overall position independence. On to the second half! 🎉

For the next push though, we'll first have a quick detour to the remaining C code of all the ZUN.COM binaries. Now that the 📝 TH04 and TH05 resident structures no longer block those, -Tom- has requested TH05's RES_KSO.COM to be covered in one of his outstanding pushes. And since 32th System recently RE'd TH03's resident structure, it makes sense to also review and merge that, before decompiling all three remaining RES_*.COM binaries in hopefully a single push. It might even get done faster than that, in which case I'll then review and merge some more of WindowsTiger's research.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0060
Commits:
29385dd...73f5ae7
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ blitting+ micro-optimization- waste+

So, where to start? Well, TH04 bullets are hard, so let's procrastinate start with TH03 instead :tannedcirno: The 📝 sprite display functions are the obvious blocker for any structure describing a sprite, and therefore most meaningful PI gains in that game… and I actually did manage to fit a decompilation of those three functions into exactly the amount of time that the Touhou Patch Center community votes alloted to TH03 reverse-engineering!

And a pretty amazing one at that. The original code was so obviously written in ASM and was just barely decompilable by exclusively using register pseudovariables and a bit of goto, but I was able to abstract most of that away, not least thanks to a few helpful optimization properties of Turbo C++… seriously, I can't stop marveling at this ancient compiler. The end result is both readable, clear, and dare I say portable?! To anyone interested in porting TH03, take a look. How painful would it be to port that away from 16-bit x86?

However, this push is also a typical example that the RE/PI priorities can only control what I look at, and the outcome can actually differ greatly. Even though the priorities were 65% RE and 35% PI, the progress outcome was +0.13% RE and +1.35% PI. But hey, we've got one more push with a focus on TH03 PI, so maybe that one will include more RE than PI, and then everything will end up just as ordered? :onricdennat:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0031, P0032, P0033
Commits:
dea40ad...9f764fa, 9f764fa...e6294c2, e6294c2...6cdd229
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ hud+ score+ tasm+ tcc+ micro-optimization- jank+

The glacial pace continues, with TH05's unnecessarily, inappropriately micro-optimized, and hence, un-decompilable code for rendering the current and high score, as well as the enemy health / dream / power bars. While the latter might still pass as well-written ASM, the former goes to such ridiculous levels that it ends up being technically buggy. If you enjoy quality ZUN code, it's definitely worth a read.

In TH05, this all still is at the end of code segment #1, but in TH04, the same code lies all over the same segment. And since I really wanted to move that code into its final form now, I finally did the research into decompiling from anywhere else in a segment.

Turns out we actually can! It's kinda annoying, though: After splitting the segment after the function we want to decompile, we then need to group the two new segments back together into one "virtual segment" matching the original one. But since all ASM in ReC98 heavily relies on being assembled in MASM mode, we then start to suffer from MASM's group addressing quirk. Which then forces us to manually prefix every single function call

  • from inside the group
  • to anywhere else within the newly created segment
with the group name. It's stupidly boring busywork, because of all the function calls you mustn't prefix. Special tooling might make this easier, but I don't have it, and I'm not getting crowdfunded for it.

So while you now definitely can request any specific thing in any of the 5 games to be decompiled right now, it will take slightly longer, and cost slightly more.
(Except for that one big segment in TH04, of course.)

Only one function away from the TH05 shot type control functions now!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0051, P0052, P0053
Commits:
6ed8e60...3ba536a
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ th04+ th05+ animation+ micro-optimization- hud+

Boss explosions! And… urgh, I really also had to wade through that overly complicated HUD rendering code. Even though I had to pick -Tom-'s 7th push here as well, the worst of that is still to come. TH04 and TH05 exclusively store the current and high score internally as unpacked little-endian BCD, with some pretty dense ASM code involving the venerable x86 BCD instructions to update it.

So, what's actually the goal here. Since I was given no priorities :onricdennat:, I still haven't had to (potentially) waste time researching whether we really can decompile from anywhere else inside a segment other than backwards from the end. So, the most efficient place for decompilation right now still is the end of TH05's main_01_TEXT segment. With maybe 1 or 2 more reverse-engineering commits, we'd have everything for an efficient decompilation up to sub_123AD. And that mass of code just happens to include all the shot type control functions, and makes up 3,007 instructions in total, or 12% of the entire remaining unknown code in MAIN.EXE.

So, the most reasonable thing would be to actually put some of the upcoming decompilation pushes towards reverse-engineering that missing part. I don't think that's a bad deal since it will allow us to mod TH05 shot types in C sooner, but zorg and qp might disagree :thonk:

Next up: thcrap TL notes, followed by finally finishing GhostPhanom's old ReC98 future-proofing pushes. I really don't want to decompile without a proper build system.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0046
Commits:
612beb8...deb45ea
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ micro-optimization- gameplay+ player+ shot+

Stumbled across one more drawing function in the way… which was only a duplicated and seemingly pointlessly micro-optimized copy of master.lib's super_roll_put_tiny() function, used for fast display of 4-color 16×16 sprites.

With this out of the way, we can tackle player shot sprite animation next. This will get rid of a lot of code, since every power level of every character's shot type is implemented in its own function. Which makes up thousands of instructions in both TH04 and TH05 that we can nicely decompile in the future without going through a dedicated reverse-engineering step.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0023, P0024
Commits:
807df3d...0cde4b7
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ laser+ micro-optimization-

Actually, I lied, and lasers ended up coming with everything that makes reverse-engineering ZUN code so difficult: weirdly reused variables, unexpected structures within structures, and those TH05-specific nasty, premature ASM micro-optimizations that will waste a lot of time during decompilation, since the majority of the code actually was C, except for where it wasn't.