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📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0162, P0163, P0164
Commits:
81dd96e...24b3a0d, 24b3a0d...6d572b3, 6d572b3...7a0e5d8
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay+ player+ shot+ animation+ glitch+ waste+ jank+ unused-

No technical obstacles for once! Just pure overcomplicated ZUN code. Unlike 📝 Konngara's main function, the main TH01 player function was every bit as difficult to decompile as you would expect from its size.

With TH01 using both separate left- and right-facing sprites for all of Reimu's moves and separate classes for Reimu's 32×32 and 48×* sprites, we're already off to a bad start. Sure, sprite mirroring is minimally more involved on PC-98, as the planar nature of VRAM requires the bits within an 8-pixel byte to also be mirrored, in addition to writing the sprite bytes from right to left. TH03 uses a 256-byte lookup table for this, generated at runtime by an infamous micro-optimized and undecompilable ASM algorithm. With TH01's existing architecture, ZUN would have then needed to write 3 additional blitting functions. But instead, he chose to waste a total of 26,112 bytes of memory on pre-mirrored sprites… :godzun:

Alright, but surely selecting those sprites from code is no big deal? Just store the direction Reimu is facing in, and then add some branches to the rendering code. And there is in fact a variable for Reimu's direction… during regular arrow-key movement, and another one while shooting and sliding, and a third as part of the special attack types, launched out of a slide.
Well, OK, technically, the last two are the same variable. But that's even worse, because it means that ZUN stores two distinct enums at the same place in memory: Shooting and sliding uses 1 for left, 2 for right, and 3 for the "invalid" direction of holding both, while the special attack types indicate the direction in their lowest bit, with 0 for right and 1 for left. I decompiled the latter as bitflags, but in ZUN's code, each of the 8 permutations is handled as a distinct type, with copy-pasted and adapted code… :zunpet: The interpretation of this two-enum "sub-mode" union variable is controlled by yet another "mode" variable… and unsurprisingly, two of the bugs in this function relate to the sub-mode variable being interpreted incorrectly.

Also, "rendering code"? This one big function basically consists of separate unblit→update→render code snippets for every state and direction Reimu can be in (moving, shooting, swinging, sliding, special-attacking, and bombing), pasted together into a tangled mess of nested if(…) statements. While a lot of the code is copy-pasted, there are still a number of inconsistencies that defeat the point of my usual refactoring treatment. After all, with a total of 85 conditional branches, anything more than I did would have just obscured the control flow too badly, making it even harder to understand what's going on.
In the end, I spotted a total of 8 bugs in this function, all of which leave Reimu invisible for one or more frames:

Thanks to the last one, Reimu's first swing animation frame is never actually rendered. So whenever someone complains about TH01 sprite flickering on an emulator: That emulator is accurate, it's the game that's poorly written. :tannedcirno:

And guess what, this function doesn't even contain everything you'd associate with per-frame player behavior. While it does handle Yin-Yang Orb repulsion as part of slides and special attacks, it does not handle the actual player/Orb collision that results in lives being lost. The funny thing about this: These two things are done in the same function… :onricdennat:

Therefore, the life loss animation is also part of another function. This is where we find the final glitch in this 3-push series: Before the 16-frame shake, this function only unblits a 32×32 area around Reimu's center point, even though it's possible to lose a life during the non-deflecting part of a 48×48-pixel animation. In that case, the extra pixels will just stay on screen during the shake. They are unblitted afterwards though, which suggests that ZUN was at least somewhat aware of the issue?
Finally, the chance to see the alternate life loss sprite Alternate TH01 life loss sprite is exactly ⅛.


As for any new insights into game mechanics… you know what? I'm just not going to write anything, and leave you with this flowchart instead. Here's the definitive guide on how to control Reimu in TH01 we've been waiting for 24 years:

Pellets are deflected during all gray states. Not shown is the obvious "double-tap Z and X" transition from all non-(#1) states to the Bomb state, but that would have made this diagram even more unwieldy than it turned out. And yes, you can shoot twice as fast while moving left or right.

While I'm at it, here are two more animations from MIKO.PTN which aren't referenced by any code:

With that monster of a function taken care of, we've only got boss sprite animation as the final blocker of uninterrupted Sariel progress. Due to some unfavorable code layout in the Mima segment though, I'll need to spend a bit more time with some of the features used there. Next up: The missile bullets used in the Mima and YuugenMagan fights.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0118
Commits:
0bb5bc3...cbf14eb
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ position-independence+ hud+ blitting+ unused-

🎉 TH05 is finally fully position-independent! 🎉 To celebrate this milestone, -Tom- coded a little demo, which we recorded on both an emulator and on real PC-98 hardware:

For all the new people who are unfamiliar with PC-98 Touhou internals: Boss behavior is hardcoded into MAIN.EXE, rather than being scriptable via separate .ECL files like in Windows Touhou. That's what makes this kind of a big deal.


What does this mean?

You can now freely add or remove both data and code anywhere in TH05, by editing the ReC98 codebase, writing your mod in ASM or C/C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.

By extension, this also means that it's now theoretically possible to use a different compiler on the source code. But:

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely reverse-engineered yet, let alone decompiled. As the final PC-98 Touhou game, TH05 also happens to have the largest amount of actual ZUN-written ASM that can't ever be decompiled within ReC98's constraints of a legit source code reconstruction. But a lot of the originally-in-C code is also still in ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now. And while I have decompiled a bunch of functions, I selected them largely because they would help with PI (as requested by the backers), and not because they are particularly relevant to typical modding interests.

As a result, the code might also be a bit confusingly organized. There's quite a conflict between various goals there: On the one hand, I'd like to only have a single instance of every function shared with earlier games, as well as reduce ZUN's code duplication within a single game. On the other hand, this leads to quite a lot of code being scattered all over the place and then #include-pasted back together, except for the places where 📝 this doesn't work, and you'd have to use multiple translation units anyway… I'm only beginning to figure out the best structure here, and some more reverse-engineering attention surely won't hurt.

Also, keep in mind that the code still targets x86 Real Mode. To work effectively in this codebase, you'd need some familiarity with memory segmentation, and how to express it all in code. This tends to make even regular C++ development about an order of magnitude harder, especially once you want to interface with the remaining ASM code. That part made -Tom- struggle quite a bit with implementing his custom scripting language for the demo above. For now, he built that demo on quite a limited foundation – which is why he also chose to release neither the build nor the source publically for the time being.
So yeah, you're definitely going to need the TASM and Borland C++ manuals there.

tl;dr: We now know everything about this game's data, but not quite as much about this game's code.

So, how long until source ports become a realistic project?

You probably want to wait for 100% RE, which is when everything that can be decompiled has been decompiled.

Unless your target system is 16-bit Windows, in which case you could theoretically start right away. 📝 Again, this would be the ideal first system to port PC-98 Touhou to: It would require all the generic portability work to remove the dependency on PC-98 hardware, thus paving the way for a subsequent port to modern systems, yet you could still just drop in any undecompiled ASM.

Porting to IBM-compatible DOS would only be a harder and less universally useful version of that. You'd then simply exchange one architecture, with its idiosyncrasies and limits, for another, with its own set of idiosyncrasies and limits. (Unless, of course, you already happen to be intimately familiar with that architecture.) The fact that master.lib provides DOS/V support would have only mattered if ZUN consistently used it to abstract away PC-98 hardware at every single place in the code, which is definitely not the case.


The list of actually interesting findings in this push is, 📝 again, very short. Probably the most notable discovery: The low-level part of the code that renders Marisa's laser from her TH04 Illusion Laser shot type is still present in TH05. Insert wild mass guessing about potential beta version shot types… Oh, and did you know that the order of background images in the Extra Stage staff roll differs by character?

Next up: Finally driving up the RE% bar again, by decompiling some TH05 main menu code.