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Showing all posts tagged th03-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0190, P0191, P0192
Commits:
5734815...293e16a, 293e16a...71cb7b5, 71cb7b5...e1f3f9f
💰 Funded by:
nrook, -Tom-, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ gameplay+ boss+ shinki+ danmaku-pattern+ midboss+ master.lib+ file-format+ tcc+ pc98+ micro-optimization+

The important things first:

So, Shinki! As far as final boss code is concerned, she's surprisingly economical, with 📝 her background animations making up more than ⅓ of her entire code. Going straight from TH01's 📝 final 📝 bosses to TH05's final boss definitely showed how much ZUN had streamlined danmaku pattern code by the end of PC-98 Touhou. Don't get me wrong, there is still room for improvement: TH05 not only 📝 reuses the same 16 bytes of generic boss state we saw in TH04 last month, but also uses them 4× as often, and even for midbosses. Most importantly though, defining danmaku patterns using a single global instance of the group template structure is just bad no matter how you look at it:

Declaring a separate structure instance with the static data for every pattern would be both safer and more space-efficient, and there's more than enough space left for that in the game's data segment.
But all in all, the pattern functions are short, sweet, and easy to follow. The "devil" pattern is significantly more complex than the others, but still far from TH01's final bosses at their worst. I especially like the clear architectural separation between "one-shot pattern" functions that return true once they're done, and "looping pattern" functions that run as long as they're being called from a boss's main function. Not many all too interesting things in these pattern functions for the most part, except for two pieces of evidence that Shinki was coded after Yumeko:


Speaking about that wing sprite: If you look at ST05.BB2 (or any other file with a large sprite, for that matter), you notice a rather weird file layout:

Raw file layout of TH05's ST05.BB2, demonstrating master.lib's supposed BFNT width limit of 64 pixels
A large sprite split into multiple smaller ones with a width of 64 pixels each? What's this, hardware sprite limitations? On my PC-98?!

And it's not a limitation of the sprite width field in the BFNT+ header either. Instead, it's master.lib's BFNT functions which are limited to sprite widths up to 64 pixels… or at least that's what MASTER.MAN claims. Whatever the restriction was, it seems to be completely nonexistent as of master.lib version 0.23, and none of the master.lib functions used by the games have any issues with larger sprites.
Since ZUN stuck to the supposed 64-pixel width limit though, it's now the game that expects Shinki's winged form to consist of 4 physical sprites, not just 1. Any conversion from another, more logical sprite sheet layout back into BFNT+ must therefore replicate the original number of sprites. Otherwise, the sequential IDs ("patnums") assigned to every newly loaded sprite no longer match ZUN's hardcoded IDs, causing the game to crash. This is exactly what used to happen with -Tom-'s MysticTK automation scripts, which combined these exact sprites into a single large one. This issue has now been fixed – just in case there are some underground modders out there who used these scripts and wonder why their game crashed as soon as the Shinki fight started.


And then the code quality takes a nosedive with Shinki's main function. :onricdennat: Even in TH05, these boss and midboss update functions are still very imperative:

The biggest WTF in there, however, goes to using one of the 16 state bytes as a "relative phase" variable for differentiating between boss phases that share the same branch within the switch(boss.phase) statement. While it's commendable that ZUN tried to reduce code duplication for once, he could have just branched depending on the actual boss.phase variable? The same state byte is then reused in the "devil" pattern to track the activity state of the big jerky lasers in the second half of the pattern. If you somehow managed to end the phase after the first few bullets of the pattern, but before these lasers are up, Shinki's update function would think that you're still in the phase before the "devil" pattern. The main function then sequence-breaks right to the defeat phase, skipping the final pattern with the burning Makai background. Luckily, the HP boundaries are far away enough to make this impossible.
The takeaway here: If you want to use the state bytes for your custom boss script mods, alias them to your own 16-byte structure, and limit each of the bytes to a clearly defined meaning across your entire boss script.

One final discovery that doesn't seem to be documented anywhere yet: Shinki actually has a hidden bomb shield during her two purple-wing phases. uth05win got this part slightly wrong though: It's not a complete shield, and hitting Shinki will still deal 1 point of chip damage per frame. For comparison, the first phase lasts for 3,000 HP, and the "devil" pattern phase lasts for 5,800 HP.

And there we go, 3rd PC-98 Touhou boss script* decompiled, 28 to go! 🎉 In case you were expecting a fix for the Shinki death glitch: That one is more appropriately fixed as part of the Mai & Yuki script. It also requires new code, should ideally look a bit prettier than just removing cheetos between one frame and the next, and I'd still like it to fit within the original position-dependent code layout… Let's do that some other time.
Not much to say about the Stage 1 midboss, or midbosses in general even, except that their update functions have to imperatively handle even more subsystems, due to the relative lack of helper functions.


The remaining ¾ of the third push went to a bunch of smaller RE and finalization work that would have hardly got any attention otherwise, to help secure that 50% RE mark. The nicest piece of code in there shows off what looks like the optimal way of setting up the 📝 GRCG tile register for monochrome blitting in a variable color:

mov ah, palette_index ; Any other non-AL 8-bit register works too.
                      ; (x86 only supports AL as the source operand for OUTs.)

rept 4                ; For all 4 bitplanes…
    shr ah,  1        ; Shift the next color bit into the x86 carry flag
    sbb al,  al       ; Extend the carry flag to a full byte
                      ; (CF=0 → 0x00, CF=1 → 0xFF)
    out 7Eh, al       ; Write AL to the GRCG tile register
endm

Thanks to Turbo C++'s inlining capabilities, the loop body even decompiles into a surprisingly nice one-liner. What a beautiful micro-optimization, at a place where micro-optimization doesn't hurt and is almost expected.
Unfortunately, the micro-optimizations went all downhill from there, becoming increasingly dumb and undecompilable. Was it really necessary to save 4 x86 instructions in the highly unlikely case of a new spark sprite being spawned outside the playfield? That one 2D polar→Cartesian conversion function then pointed out Turbo C++ 4.0J's woefully limited support for 32-bit micro-optimizations. The code generation for 32-bit 📝 pseudo-registers is so bad that they almost aren't worth using for arithmetic operations, and the inline assembler just flat out doesn't support anything 32-bit. No use in decompiling a function that you'd have to entirely spell out in machine code, especially if the same function already exists in multiple other, more idiomatic C++ variations.
Rounding out the third push, we got the TH04/TH05 DEMO?.REC replay file reading code, which should finally prove that nothing about the game's original replay system could serve as even just the foundation for community-usable replays. Just in case anyone was still thinking that.


Next up: Back to TH01, with the Elis fight! Got a bit of room left in the cap again, and there are a lot of things that would make a lot of sense now:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0182, P0183
Commits:
313450f...1e2c7ad, 1e2c7ad...f9d983e
💰 Funded by:
Lmocinemod, [Anonymous], Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- pc98+ gameplay+ player+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ portability+ mod+

Been 📝 a while since we last looked at any of TH03's game code! But before that, we need to talk about Y coordinates.

During TH03's MAIN.EXE, the PC-98 graphics GDC runs in its line-doubled 640×200 resolution, which gives the in-game portion its distinctive stretched low-res look. This lower resolution is a consequence of using 📝 Promisence Soft's SPRITE16 driver: Its performance simply stems from the fact that it expects sprites to be stored in the bottom half of VRAM, which allows them to be blitted using the same EGC-accelerated VRAM-to-VRAM copies we've seen again and again in all other games. Reducing the visible resolution also means that the sprites can be stored on both VRAM pages, allowing the game to still be double-buffered. If you force the graphics chip to run at 640×400, you can see them:

TH03's VRAM at regular line-doubled 640×200 resolutionTH03's VRAM at full 640×400 resolution, including the SPRITE16 sprite areaTH03's text layer during an in-game round.
The full VRAM contents during TH03's in-game portion, as seen when forcing the system into a 640×400 resolution.

Note that the text chip still displays its overlaid contents at 640×400, which means that TH03's in-game portion technically runs at two resolutions at the same time.

But that means that any mention of a Y coordinate is ambiguous: Does it refer to undoubled VRAM pixels, or on-screen stretched pixels? Especially people who have known about the line doubling for years might almost expect technical blog posts on this game to use undoubled VRAM coordinates. So, let's introduce a new formatting convention for both on-screen 640×400 and undoubled 640×200 coordinates, and always write out both to minimize the confusion.


Alright, now what's the thing gonna be? The enemy structure is highly overloaded, being used for enemies, fireballs, and explosions with seemingly different semantics for each. Maybe a bit too much to be figured out in what should ideally be a single push, especially with all the functions that would need to be decompiled? Bullet code would be easier, but not exactly single-push material either. As it turns out though, there's something more fundamental left to be done first, which both of these subsystems depend on: collision detection!

And it's implemented exactly how I always naively imagined collision detection to be implemented in a fixed-resolution 2D bullet hell game with small hitboxes: By keeping a separate 1bpp bitmap of both playfields in memory, drawing in the collidable regions of all entities on every frame, and then checking whether any pixels at the current location of the player's hitbox are set to 1. It's probably not done in the other games because their single data segment was already too packed for the necessary 17,664 bytes to store such a bitmap at pixel resolution, and 282,624 bytes for a bitmap at Q12.4 subpixel resolution would have been prohibitively expensive in 16-bit Real Mode DOS anyway. In TH03, on the other hand, this bitmap is doubly useful, as the AI also uses it to elegantly learn what's on the playfield. By halving the resolution and only tracking tiles of 2×2 / 2×1 pixels, TH03 only requires an adequate total of 6,624 bytes of memory for the collision bitmaps of both playfields.

So how did the implementation not earn the good-code tag this time? Because the code for drawing into these bitmaps is undecompilable hand-written x86 assembly. :zunpet: And not just your usual ASM that was basically compiled from C and then edited to maybe optimize register allocation and maybe replace a bunch of local variables with self-modifying code, oh no. This code is full of overly clever bit twiddling, abusing the fact that the 16-bit AX, BX, CX, and DX registers can also be accessed as two 8-bit registers, calculations that change the semantic meaning behind the value of a register, or just straight-up reassignments of different values to the same small set of registers. Sure, in some way it is impressive, and it all does work and correctly covers every edge case, but come on. This could have all been a lot more readable in exchange for just a few CPU cycles.

What's most interesting though are the actual shapes that these functions draw into the collision bitmap. On the surface, we have:

  1. vertical slopes at any angle across the whole playfield; exclusively used for Chiyuri's diagonal laser EX attack
  2. straight vertical lines, with a width of 1 tile; exclusively used for the 2×2 / 2×1 hitboxes of bullets
  3. rectangles at arbitrary sizes

But only 2) actually draws a full solid line. 1) and 3) are only ever drawn as horizontal stripes, with a hardcoded distance of 2 vertical tiles between every stripe of a slope, and 4 vertical tiles between every stripe of a rectangle. That's 66-75% of each rectangular entity's intended hitbox not actually taking part in collision detection. Now, if player hitboxes were ≤ 6 / 3 pixels, we'd have one possible explanation of how the AI can "cheat", because it could just precisely move through those blank regions at TAS speeds. So, let's make this two pushes after all and tell the complete story, since this is one of the more interesting aspects to still be documented in this game.


And the code only gets worse. :godzun: While the player collision detection function is decompilable, it might as well not have been, because it's just more of the same "optimized", hard-to-follow assembly. With the four splittable 16-bit registers having a total of 20 different meanings in this function, I would have almost preferred self-modifying code…

In fact, it was so bad that it prompted some maintenance work on my inline assembly coding standards as a whole. Turns out that the _asm keyword is not only still supported in modern Visual Studio compilers, but also in Clang with the -fms-extensions flag, and compiles fine there even for 64-bit targets. While that might sound like amazing news at first ("awesome, no need to rewrite this stuff for my x86_64 Linux port!"), you quickly realize that almost all inline assembly in this codebase assumes either PC-98 hardware, segmented 16-bit memory addressing, or is a temporary hack that will be removed with further RE progress.
That's mainly because most of the raw arithmetic code uses Turbo C++'s register pseudovariables where possible. While they certainly have their drawbacks, being a non-standard extension that's not supported in other x86-targeting C compilers, their advantages are quite significant: They allow this code to stay in the same language, and provide slightly more immediate portability to any other architecture, together with 📝 readability and maintainability improvements that can get quite significant when combined with inlining:

// This one line compiles to five ASM instructions, which would need to be
// spelled out in any C compiler that doesn't support register pseudovariables.
// By adding typed aliases for these registers via `#define`, this code can be
// both made even more readable, and be prepared for an easier transformation
// into more portable local variables.
_ES = (((_AX * 4) + _BX) + SEG_PLANE_B);

However, register pseudovariables might cause potential portability issues as soon as they are mixed with inline assembly instructions that rely on their state. The lazy way of "supporting pseudo-registers" in other compilers would involve declaring the full set as global variables, which would immediately break every one of those instances:

_DI = 0;
_AX = 0xFFFF;

// Special x86 instruction doing the equivalent of
//
// 	*reinterpret_cast(MK_FP(_ES, _DI)) = _AX;
// 	_DI += sizeof(uint16_t);
//
// Only generated by Turbo C++ in very specific cases, and therefore only
// reliably available through inline assembly.
asm { movsw; }

What's also not all too standardized, though, are certain variants of the asm keyword. That's why I've now introduced a distinction between the _asm keyword for "decently sane" inline assembly, and the slightly less standard asm keyword for inline assembly that relies on the contents of pseudo-registers, and should break on compilers that don't support them.
So yeah, have some minor portability work in exchange for these two pushes not having all that much in RE'd content.

With that out of the way and the function deciphered, we can confirm the player hitboxes to be a constant 8×8 / 8×4 pixels, and prove that the hit stripes are nothing but an adequate optimization that doesn't affect gameplay in any way.


And what's the obvious thing to immediately do if you have both the collision bitmap and the player hitbox? Writing a "real hitbox" mod, of course:

  1. Reorder the calls to rendering functions so that player and shot sprites are rendered after bullets
  2. Blank out all player sprite pixels outside an 8×8 / 8×4 box around the center point
  3. After the bullet rendering function, turn on the GRCG in RMW mode and set the tile register set to the background color
  4. Stretch the negated contents of collision bitmap onto each playfield, leaving only collidable pixels untouched
  5. Do the same with the actual, non-negated contents and a white color, for extra contrast against the background. This also makes sure to show any collidable areas whose sprite pixels are transparent, such as with the moon enemy. (Yeah, how unfair.) Doing that also loses a lot of information about the playfield, such as enemy HP indicated by their color, but what can you do:
A decently busy TH03 in-game frame.The underlying content of the collision bitmap, showing off all three different shapes together with the player hitboxes.
A decently busy TH03 in-game frame and its underlying collision bitmap, showing off all three different collision shapes together with the player hitboxes.

2022-02-18-TH03-real-hitbox.zip The secret for writing such mods before having reached a sufficient level of position independence? Put your new code segment into DGROUP, past the end of the uninitialized data section. That's why this modded MAIN.EXE is a lot larger than you would expect from the raw amount of new code: The file now actually needs to store all these uninitialized 0 bytes between the end of the data segment and the first instruction of the mod code – normally, this number is simply a part of the MZ EXE header, and doesn't need to be redundantly stored on disk. Check the th03_real_hitbox branch for the code.

And now we know why so many "real hitbox" mods for the Windows Touhou games are inaccurate: The games would simply be unplayable otherwise – or can you dodge rapidly moving 2×2 / 2×1 blocks as an 8×8 / 8×4 rectangle that is smaller than your shot sprites, especially without focused movement? I can't. :tannedcirno: Maybe it will feel more playable after making explosions visible, but that would need more RE groundwork first.
It's also interesting how adding two full GRCG-accelerated redraws of both playfields per frame doesn't significantly drop the game's frame rate – so why did the drawing functions have to be micro-optimized again? It would be possible in one pass by using the GRCG's TDW mode, which should theoretically be 8× faster, but I have to stop somewhere. :onricdennat:

Next up: The final missing piece of TH04's and TH05's bullet-moving code, which will include a certain other type of projectile as well.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0172, P0173
Commits:
49e6789...2d5491e, 2d5491e...27f901c
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- file-format+ menu+ score+ blitting+ glitch+

TH03 finally passed 20% RE, and the newly decompiled code contains no serious ZUN bugs! What a nice way to end the year.

There's only a single unlockable feature in TH03: Chiyuri and Yumemi as playable characters, unlocked after a 1CC on any difficulty. Just like the Extra Stages in TH04 and TH05, YUME.NEM contains a single designated variable for this unlocked feature, making it trivial to craft a fully unlocked score file without recording any high scores that others would have to compete against. So, we can now put together a complete set for all PC-98 Touhou games: 2021-12-27-Fully-unlocked-clean-score-files.zip It would have been cool to set the randomly generated encryption keys in these files to a fixed value so that they cancel out and end up not actually encrypting the file. Too bad that TH03 also started feeding each encrypted byte back into its stream cipher, which makes this impossible.

The main loading and saving code turned out to be the second-cleanest implementation of a score file format in PC-98 Touhou, just behind TH02. Only two of the YUME.NEM functions come with nonsensical differences between OP.EXE and MAINL.EXE, rather than 📝 all of them, as in TH01 or 📝 too many of them, as in TH04 and TH05. As for the rest of the per-difficulty structure though… well, it quickly becomes clear why this was the final score file format to be RE'd. The name, score, and stage fields are directly stored in terms of the internal REGI*.BFT sprite IDs used on the high score screen. TH03 also stores 10 score digits for each place rather than the 9 possible ones, keeps any leading 0 digits, and stores the letters of entered names in reverse order… yeah, let's decompile the high score screen as well, for a full understanding of why ZUN might have done all that. (Answer: For no reason at all. :zunpet:)


And wow, what a breath of fresh air. It's surely not good-code: The overlapping shadows resulting from using a 24-pixel letterspacing with 32-pixel glyphs in the name column led ZUN to do quite a lot of unnecessary and slightly confusing rendering work when moving the cursor back and forth, and he even forgot about the EGC there. But it's nowhere close to the level of jank we saw in 📝 TH01's high score menu last year. Good to see that ZUN had learned a thing or two by his third game – especially when it comes to storing the character map cursor in terms of a character ID, and improving the layout of the character map:

The alphabet available for TH03 high score names.

That's almost a nicely regular grid there. With the question mark and the double-wide SP, BS, and END options, the cursor movement code only comes with a reasonable two exceptions, which are easily handled. And while I didn't get this screen completely decompiled, one additional push was enough to cover all important code there.

The only potential glitch on this screen is a result of ZUN's continued use of binary-coded decimal digits without any bounds check or cap. Like the in-game HUD score display in TH04 and TH05, TH03's high score screen simply uses the next glyph in the character set for the most significant digit of any score above 1,000,000,000 points – in this case, the period. Still, it only really gets bad at 8,000,000,000 points: Once the glyphs are exhausted, the blitting function ends up accessing garbage data and filling the entire screen with garbage pixels. For comparison though, the current world record is 133,650,710 points, so good luck getting 8 billion in the first place.

Next up: Starting 2022 with the long-awaited decompilation of TH01's Sariel fight! Due to the 📝 recent price increase, we now got a window in the cap that is going to remain open until tomorrow, providing an early opportunity to set a new priority after Sariel is done.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0148
Commits:
c940059...e1a26bb
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ animation+ hud+ gaiji+ kaja+

Back after taking way too long to get Touhou Patch Center's MediaWiki update feature complete… I'm still waiting for more translators to test and review the new translation interface before delivering and deploying it all, which will most likely lead to another break from ReC98 within the next few months. For now though, I'm happy to have mostly addressed the nagging responsibility I still had after willing that site into existence, and to be back working on ReC98. 🙂

As announced, the next few pushes will focus on TH04's and TH05's bullet spawning code, before I get to put all that accumulated TH01 money towards finishing all of konngara's code in TH01. For a full picture of what's happening with bullets, we'd really also like to have the bullet update function as readable C code though.
Clearing all bullets on the playfield will trigger a Bonus!! popup, displayed as 📝 gaiji in that proportional font. Unfortunately, TLINK refused to link the code as soon as I referenced the function for animating the popups at the top of the playfield? Which can only mean that we have to decompile that function first… :thonk:

So, let's turn that piece of technical debt into a full push, and first decompile another random set of previously reverse-engineered TH04 and TH05 functions. Most of these are stored in a different place within the two MAIN.EXE binaries, and the tried-and-true method of matching segment names would therefore have introduced several unnecessary translation units. So I resorted to a segment splitting technique I should have started using way earlier: Simply creating new segments with names derived from their functions, at the exact positions they're needed. All the new segment start and end directives do bloat the ASM code somewhat, and certainly contributed to this push barely removing any actual lines of code. However, what we get in return is total freedom as far as decompilation order is concerned, 📝 which should be the case for any ReC project, really. And in the end, all these tiny code segments will cancel out anyway.
If only we could do the same with the data segment…


The popup function happened to be the final one I RE'd before my long break in the spring of 2019. Back then, I didn't even bother looking into that 64-frame delay between changing popups, and what that meant for the game.
Each of these popups stays on screen for 128 frames, during which, of course, another popup-worthy event might happen. Handling this cleanly without removing previous popups too early would involve some sort of event queue, whose size might even be meaningfully limited to the number of distinct events that can happen. But still, that'd be a data structure, and we're not gonna have that! :zunpet: Instead, ZUN simply keeps two variables for the new and current popup ID. During an active popup, any change to that ID will only be committed once the current popup has been shown for at least 64 frames. And during that time, that new ID can be freely overwritten with a different one, which drops any previous, undisplayed event. But surely, there won't be more than two events happening within 63 frames, right? :tannedcirno:

The rest was fairly uneventful – no newly RE'd functions in this push, after all – until I reached the widely used helper function for applying the current vertical scrolling offset to a Y coordinate. Its combination of a function parameter, the pascal calling convention, and no stack frame was previously thought to be undecompilable… except that it isn't, and the decompilation didn't even require any new workarounds to be developed? Good thing that I already forgot how impossible it was to decompile the first function I looked at that fell into this category!
Oh well, this discovery wasn't too groundbreaking. Looking back at all the other functions with that combination only revealed a grand total of 1 additional one where a decompilation made sense: TH05's version of snd_kaja_interrupt(), which is now compiled from the same C++ file for all 4 games that use it. And well, looks like some quirks really remain unnoticed and undocumented until you look at a function for the 11th time: Its return value is undefined if BGM is inactive – that is, if the user disabled it, or if no FM board is installed. Not that it matters for the original code, which never uses this function to retrieve anything from KAJA's drivers. But people apparently do copy ReC98 code into their own projects, so it is something to keep in mind.


All in all, nothing quite at jank level in this one, but we were surely grazing that tag. Next up, with that out of the way: The bullet update/step function! Very soon in fact, since I've mostly got it done already.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0139
Commits:
864e864...d985811
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ kaja+ jank+ bug+ contribution-ideas+

Technical debt, part 10… in which two of the PMD-related functions came with such complex ramifications that they required one full push after all, leaving no room for the additional decompilations I wanted to do. At least, this did end up being the final one, completing all SHARED segments for the time being.


The first one of these functions determines the BGM and sound effect modes, combining the resident type of the PMD driver with the Option menu setting. The TH04 and TH05 version is apparently coded quite smartly, as PC-98 Touhou only needs to distinguish "OPN- / PC-9801-26K-compatible sound sources handled by PMD.COM" from "everything else", since all other PMD varieties are OPNA- / PC-9801-86-compatible.
Therefore, I only documented those two results returned from PMD's AH=09h function. I'll leave a comprehensive, fully documented enum to interested contributors, since that would involve research into basically the entire history of the PC-9800 series, and even the clearly out-of-scope PC-88VA. After all, distinguishing between more versions of the PMD driver in the Option menu (and adding new sprites for them!) is strictly mod territory.


The honor of being the final decompiled function in any SHARED segment went to TH04's snd_load(). TH04 contains by far the sanest version of this function: Readable C code, no new ZUN bugs (and still missing file I/O error handling, of course)… but wait, what about that actual file read syscall, using the INT 21h, AH=3Fh DOS file read API? Reading up to a hardcoded number of bytes into PMD's or MMD's song or sound effect buffer, 20 KiB in TH02-TH04, 64 KiB in TH05… that's kind of weird. About time we looked closer into this. :thonk:

Turns out that no, KAJA's driver doesn't give you the full 64 KiB of one memory segment for these, as especially TH05's code might suggest to anyone unfamiliar with these drivers. :zunpet: Instead, you can customize the size of these buffers on its command line. In GAME.BAT, ZUN allocates 8 KiB for FM songs, 2 KiB for sound effects, and 12 KiB for MMD files in TH02… which means that the hardcoded sizes in snd_load() are completely wrong, no matter how you look at them. :onricdennat: Consequently, this read syscall will overflow PMD's or MMD's song or sound effect buffer if the given file is larger than the respective buffer size.
Now, ZUN could have simply hardcoded the sizes from GAME.BAT instead, and it would have been fine. As it also turns out though, PMD has an API function (AH=22h) to retrieve the actual buffer sizes, provided for exactly that purpose. There is little excuse not to use it, as it also gives you PMD's default sizes if you don't specify any yourself.
(Unless your build process enumerates all PMD files that are part of the game, and bakes the largest size into both snd_load() and GAME.BAT. That would even work with MMD, which doesn't have an equivalent for AH=22h.)

What'd be the consequence of loading a larger file then? Well, since we don't get a full segment, let's look at the theoretical limit first.
PMD prefers to keep both its driver code and the data buffers in a single memory segment. As a result, the limit for the combined size of the song, instrument, and sound effect buffer is determined by the amount of code in the driver itself. In PMD86 version 4.8o (bundled with TH04 and TH05) for example, the remaining size for these buffers is exactly 45,555 bytes. Being an actually good programmer who doesn't blindly trust user input, KAJA thankfully validates the sizes given via the /M, /V, and /E command-line options before letting the driver reside in memory, and shuts down with an error message if they exceed 40 KiB. Would have been even better if he calculated the exact size – even in the current PMD version 4.8s from January 2020, it's still a hardcoded value (see line 8581).
Either way: If the file is larger than this maximum, the concrete effect is down to the INT 21h, AH=3Fh implementation in the underlying DOS version. DOS 3.3 treats the destination address as linear and reads past the end of the segment, DOS 5.0 and DOSBox-X truncate the number of bytes to not exceed the remaining space in the segment, and maybe there's even a DOS that wraps around and ends up overwriting the PMD driver code. In any case: You will overwrite what's after the driver in memory – typically, the game .EXE and its master.lib functions.

It almost feels like a happy accident that this doesn't cause issues in the original games. The largest PMD file in any of the 4 games, the -86 version of 幽夢 ~ Inanimate Dream, takes up 8,099 bytes, just under the 8,192 byte limit for BGM. For modders, I'd really recommend implementing this properly, with PMD's AH=22h function and error handling, once position independence has been reached.

Whew, didn't think I'd be doing more research into KAJA's drivers during regular ReC98 development! That's probably been the final time though, as all involved functions are now decompiled, and I'm unlikely to iterate over them again.


And that's it! Repaid the biggest chunk of technical debt, time for some actual progress again. Next up: Reopening the store tomorrow, and waiting for new priorities. If we got nothing by Sunday, I'm going to put the pending [Anonymous] pushes towards some work on the website.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0138
Commits:
8d953dc...864e864
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th03- th04+ micro-optimization+ file-format+ waste+

Technical debt, part 9… and as it turns out, it's highly impractical to repay 100% of it at this point in development. 😕

The reason: graph_putsa_fx(), ZUN's function for rendering optionally boldfaced text to VRAM using the font ROM glyphs, in its ridiculously micro-optimized TH04 and TH05 version. This one sets the "callback function" for applying the boldface effect by self-modifying the target of two CALL rel16 instructions… because there really wasn't any free register left for an indirect CALL, eh? The necessary distance, from the call site to the function itself, has to be calculated at assembly time, by subtracting the target function label from the call site label.
This usually wouldn't be a problem… if ZUN didn't store the resulting lookup tables in the .DATA segment. With code segments, we can easily split them at pretty much any point between functions because there are multiple of them. But there's only a single .DATA segment, with all ZUN and master.lib data sandwiched between Borland C++'s crt0 at the top, and Borland C++'s library functions at the bottom of the segment. Adding another split point would require all data after that point to be moved to its own translation unit, which in turn requires EXTERN references in the big .ASM file to all that moved data… in short, it would turn the codebase into an even greater mess.
Declaring the labels as EXTERN wouldn't work either, since the linker can't do fancy arithmetic and is limited to simply replacing address placeholders with one single address. So, we're now stuck with this function at the bottom of the SHARED segment, for the foreseeable future.


We can still continue to separate functions off the top of that segment, though. Pretty much the only thing noteworthy there, so far: TH04's code for loading stage tile images from .MPN files, which we hadn't reverse-engineered so far, and which nicely fit into one of Blue Bolt's pending ⅓ RE contributions. Yup, we finally moved the RE% bars again! If only for a tiny bit. :tannedcirno:
Both TH02 and TH05 simply store one pointer to one dynamically allocated memory block for all tile images, as well as the number of images, in the data segment. TH04, on the other hand, reserves memory for 8 .MPN slots, complete with their color palettes, even though it only ever uses the first one of these. There goes another 458 bytes of conventional RAM… I should start summing up all the waste we've seen so far. Let's put the next website contribution towards a tagging system for these blog posts.

At 86% of technical debt in the SHARED segment repaid, we aren't quite done yet, but the rest is mostly just TH04 needing to catch up with functions we've already separated. Next up: Getting to that practical 98.5% point. Since this is very likely to not require a full push, I'll also decompile some more actual TH04 and TH05 game code I previously reverse-engineered – and after that, reopen the store!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0137
Commits:
07bfcf2...8d953dc
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ build-process+ meta+ contribution-ideas+ mod+ tasm+ tcc+

Whoops, the build was broken again? Since P0127 from mid-November 2020, on TASM32 version 5.3, which also happens to be the one in the DevKit… That version changed the alignment for the default segments of certain memory models when requesting .386 support. And since redefining segment alignment apparently is highly illegal and absolutely has to be a build error, some of the stand-alone .ASM translation units didn't assemble anymore on this version. I've only spotted this on my own because I casually compiled ReC98 somewhere else – on my development system, I happened to have TASM32 version 5.0 in the PATH during all this time.
At least this was a good occasion to get rid of some weird segment alignment workarounds from 2015, and replace them with the superior convention of using the USE16 modifier for the .MODEL directive.

ReC98 would highly benefit from a build server – both in order to immediately spot issues like this one, and as a service for modders. Even more so than the usual open-source project of its size, I would say. But that might be exactly because it doesn't seem like something you can trivially outsource to one of the big CI providers for open-source projects, and quickly set it up with a few lines of YAML.
That might still work in the beginning, and we might get by with a regular 64-bit Windows 10 and DOSBox running the exact build tools from the DevKit. Ideally, though, such a server should really run the optimal configuration of a 32-bit Windows 10, allowing both the 32-bit and the 16-bit build step to run natively, which already is something that no popular CI service out there offers. Then, we'd optimally expand to Linux, every other Windows version down to 95, emulated PC-98 systems, other TASM versions… yeah, it'd be a lot. An experimental project all on its own, with additional hosting costs and probably diminishing returns, the more it expands…
I've added it as a category to the order form, let's see how much interest there is once the store reopens (which will be at the beginning of May, at the latest). That aside, it would 📝 also be a great project for outside contributors!


So, technical debt, part 8… and right away, we're faced with TH03's low-level input function, which 📝 once 📝 again 📝 insists on being word-aligned in a way we can't fake without duplicating translation units. Being undecompilable isn't exactly the best property for a function that has been interesting to modders in the past: In 2018, spaztron64 created an ASM-level mod that hardcoded more ergonomic key bindings for human-vs-human multiplayer mode: 2021-04-04-TH03-WASD-2player.zip However, this remapping attempt remained quite limited, since we hadn't (and still haven't) reached full position independence for TH03 yet. There's quite some potential for size optimizations in this function, which would allow more BIOS key groups to already be used right now, but it's not all that obvious to modders who aren't intimately familiar with x86 ASM. Therefore, I really wouldn't want to keep such a long and important function in ASM if we don't absolutely have to…

… and apparently, that's all the motivation I needed? So I took the risk, and spent the first half of this push on reverse-engineering TCC.EXE, to hopefully find a way to get word-aligned code segments out of Turbo C++ after all.

And there is! The -WX option, used for creating DPMI applications, messes up all sorts of code generation aspects in weird ways, but does in fact mark the code segment as word-aligned. We can consider ourselves quite lucky that we get to use Turbo C++ 4.0, because this feature isn't available in any previous version of Borland's C++ compilers.
That allowed us to restore all the decompilations I previously threw away… well, two of the three, that lookup table generator was too much of a mess in C. :tannedcirno: But what an abuse this is. The subtly different code generation has basically required one creative workaround per usage of -WX. For example, enabling that option causes the regular PUSH BP and POP BP prolog and epilog instructions to be wrapped with INC BP and DEC BP, for some reason:

a_function_compiled_with_wx proc
	inc 	bp    	; ???
	push	bp
	mov 	bp, sp
	    	      	; [… function code …]
	pop 	bp
	dec 	bp    	; ???
	ret
a_function_compiled_with_wx endp

Luckily again, all the functions that currently require -WX don't set up a stack frame and don't take any parameters.
While this hasn't directly been an issue so far, it's been pretty close: snd_se_reset(void) is one of the functions that require word alignment. Previously, it shared a translation unit with the immediately following snd_se_play(int new_se), which does take a parameter, and therefore would have had its prolog and epilog code messed up by -WX. Since the latter function has a consistent (and thus, fakeable) alignment, I simply split that code segment into two, with a new -WX translation unit for just snd_se_reset(void). Problem solved – after all, two C++ translation units are still better than one ASM translation unit. :onricdennat: Especially with all the previous #include improvements.

The rest was more of the usual, getting us 74% done with repaying the technical debt in the SHARED segment. A lot of the remaining 26% is TH04 needing to catch up with TH03 and TH05, which takes comparatively little time. With some good luck, we might get this done within the next push… that is, if we aren't confronted with all too many more disgusting decompilations, like the two functions that ended this push. If we are, we might be needing 10 pushes to complete this after all, but that piece of research was definitely worth the delay. Next up: One more of these.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0135, P0136
Commits:
a6eed55...252c13d, 252c13d...07bfcf2
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ kaja+ menu+ micro-optimization+ bug+ tcc+

Alright, no more big code maintenance tasks that absolutely need to be done right now. Time to really focus on parts 6 and 7 of repaying technical debt, right? Except that we don't get to speed up just yet, as TH05's barely decompilable PMD file loading function is rather… complicated.
Fun fact: Whenever I see an unusual sequence of x86 instructions in PC-98 Touhou, I first consult the disassembly of Wolfenstein 3D. That game was originally compiled with the quite similar Borland C++ 3.0, so it's quite helpful to compare its ASM to the officially released source code. If I find the instructions in question, they mostly come from that game's ASM code, leading to the amusing realization that "even John Carmack was unable to get these instructions out of this compiler" :onricdennat: This time though, Wolfenstein 3D did point me to Borland's intrinsics for common C functions like memcpy() and strchr(), available via #pragma intrinsic. Bu~t those unfortunately still generate worse code than what ZUN micro-optimized here. Commenting how these sequences of instructions should look in C is unfortunately all I could do here.
The conditional branches in this function did compile quite nicely though, clarifying the control flow, and clearly exposing a ZUN bug: TH05's snd_load() will hang in an infinite loop when trying to load a non-existing -86 BGM file (with a .M2 extension) if the corresponding -26 BGM file (with a .M extension) doesn't exist either.

Unsurprisingly, the PMD channel monitoring code in TH05's Music Room remains undecompilable outside the two most "high-level" initialization and rendering functions. And it's not because there's data in the middle of the code segment – that would have actually been possible with some #pragmas to ensure that the data and code segments have the same name. As soon as the SI and DI registers are referenced anywhere, Turbo C++ insists on emitting prolog code to save these on the stack at the beginning of the function, and epilog code to restore them from there before returning. Found that out in September 2019, and confirmed that there's no way around it. All the small helper functions here are quite simply too optimized, throwing away any concern for such safety measures. 🤷
Oh well, the two functions that were decompilable at least indicate that I do try.


Within that same 6th push though, we've finally reached the one function in TH05 that was blocking further progress in TH04, allowing that game to finally catch up with the others in terms of separated translation units. Feels good to finally delete more of those .ASM files we've decompiled a while ago… finally!

But since that was just getting started, the most satisfying development in both of these pushes actually came from some more experiments with macros and inline functions for near-ASM code. By adding "unused" dummy parameters for all relevant registers, the exact input registers are made more explicit, which might help future port authors who then maybe wouldn't have to look them up in an x86 instruction reference quite as often. At its best, this even allows us to declare certain functions with the __fastcall convention and express their parameter lists as regular C, with no additional pseudo-registers or macros required.
As for output registers, Turbo C++'s code generation turns out to be even more amazing than previously thought when it comes to returning pseudo-registers from inline functions. A nice example for how this can improve readability can be found in this piece of TH02 code for polling the PC-98 keyboard state using a BIOS interrupt:

inline uint8_t keygroup_sense(uint8_t group) {
	_AL = group;
	_AH = 0x04;
	geninterrupt(0x18);
	// This turns the output register of this BIOS call into the return value
	// of this function. Surprisingly enough, this does *not* naively generate
	// the `MOV AL, AH` instruction you might expect here!
	return _AH;
}

void input_sense(void)
{
	// As a result, this assignment becomes `_AH = _AH`, which Turbo C++
	// never emits as such, giving us only the three instructions we need.
	_AH = keygroup_sense(8);

	// Whereas this one gives us the one additional `MOV BH, AH` instruction
	// we'd expect, and nothing more.
	_BH = keygroup_sense(7);

	// And now it's obvious what both of these registers contain, from just
	// the assignments above.
	if(_BH & K7_ARROW_UP || _AH & K8_NUM_8) {
		key_det |= INPUT_UP;
	}
	// […]
}

I love it. No inline assembly, as close to idiomatic C code as something like this is going to get, yet still compiling into the minimum possible number of x86 instructions on even a 1994 compiler. This is how I keep this project interesting for myself during chores like these. :tannedcirno: We might have even reached peak inline already?

And that's 65% of technical debt in the SHARED segment repaid so far. Next up: Two more of these, which might already complete that segment? Finally!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0133
Commits:
045450c...1d5db71
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ micro-optimization+ master.lib+ tcc+

Wow, 31 commits in a single push? Well, what the last push had in progress, this one had in maintenance. The 📝 master.lib header transition absolutely had to be completed in this one, for my own sanity. And indeed, it reduced the build time for the entirety of ReC98 to about 27 seconds on my system, just as expected in the original announcement. Looking forward to even faster build times with the upcoming #include improvements I've got up my sleeve! The port authors of the future are going to appreciate those quite a bit.

As for the new translation units, the funniest one is probably TH05's function for blitting the 1-color .CDG images used for the main menu options. Which is so optimized that it becomes decompilable again, by ditching the self-modifying code of its TH04 counterpart in favor of simply making better use of CPU registers. The resulting C code is still a mess, but what can you do. :tannedcirno:
This was followed by even more TH05 functions that clearly weren't compiled from C, as evidenced by their padding bytes. It's about time I've documented my lack of ideas of how to get those out of Turbo C++. :onricdennat:

And just like in the previous push, I also had to 📝 throw away a decompiled TH02 function purely due to alignment issues. Couldn't have been a better one though, no one's going to miss a residency check for the MMD driver that is largely identical to the corresponding (and indeed decompilable) function for the PMD driver. Both of those should have been merged into a single function anyway, given how they also mutate the game's sound configuration flags…

In the end, I've slightly slowed down with this one, with only 37% of technical debt done after this 4th dedicated push. Next up: One more of these, centered around TH05's stupidly optimized .PI functions. Maybe also with some more reverse-engineering, after not having done any for 1½ months?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0132
Commits:
dc9e3ee...045450c
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ file-format+

Now that's the amount of translation unit separation progress I was looking for! Too bad that RL is keeping me more and more occupied these days, and ended up delaying this push until 2021. Now that Touhou Patch Center is also commissioning me to update their infrastructure, it's going to take a while for ReC98 to return to full speed, and for the store to be reopened. Should happen by April at the latest, though!

With everything related to this separation of translation units explained earlier, we've really got a push with nothing to talk about, this time. Except, maybe, for the realization that 📝 this current approach might not be the best fit for TH02 after all: Not only did it force us to 📝 throw away the previous decompilation of the sound effect playback functions, but OP.EXE also contains obviously copy-pasted code in addition to the common, shared set of library functions. How was that game even built, originally??? No way around compiling that one instance of the "delay until given BGM measure" function separately then, if it insists on using its own instance of the VSync delay function…
Oh well, this separated layout still works better for the later games, and consistency is good. Smooth sailing with all of the other functions, at least.

Next up: One more of these, which might even end up completing the 📝 transition to our own master.lib header file. In terms of the total number of ASM code left in the SHARED code segments, we're now 30% done after 3 dedicated pushes. It really shouldn't require 7 more pushes, though!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0126, P0127
Commits:
6c22af7...8b01657, 8b01657...dc65b59
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ pc98+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ tasm+ meta+

Alright, back to continuing the master.hpp transition started in P0124, and repaying technical debt. The last blog post already announced some ridiculous decompilations… and in fact, not a single one of the functions in these two pushes was decompilable into idiomatic C/C++ code.

As usual, that didn't keep me from trying though. The TH04 and TH05 version of the infamous 16-pixel-aligned, EGC-accelerated rectangle blitting function from page 1 to page 0 was fairly average as far as unreasonable decompilations are concerned.
The big blocker in TH03's MAIN.EXE, however, turned out to be the .MRS functions, used to render the gauge attack portraits and bomb backgrounds. The blitting code there uses the additional FS and GS segment registers provided by the Intel 386… which

  1. are not supported by Turbo C++'s inline assembler, and
  2. can't be turned into pointers, due to a compiler bug in Turbo C++ that generates wrong segment prefix opcodes for the _FS and _GS pseudo-registers.

Apparently I'm the first one to even try doing that with this compiler? I haven't found any other mention of this bug…
Compiling via assembly (#pragma inline) would work around this bug and generate the correct instructions. But that would incur yet another dependency on a 16-bit TASM, for something honestly quite insignificant.

What we can always do, however, is using __emit__() to simply output x86 opcodes anywhere in a function. Unlike spelled-out inline assembly, that can even be used in helper functions that are supposed to inline… which does in fact allow us to fully abstract away this compiler bug. Regular if() comparisons with pseudo-registers wouldn't inline, but "converting" them into C++ template function specializations does. All that's left is some C preprocessor abuse to turn the pseudo-registers into types, and then we do retain a normal-looking poke() call in the blitting functions in the end. 🤯

Yeah… the result is batshit insane. I may have gone too far in a few places…


One might certainly argue that all these ridiculous decompilations actually hurt the preservation angle of this project. "Clearly, ZUN couldn't have possibly written such unreasonable C++ code. So why pretend he did, and not just keep it all in its more natural ASM form?" Well, there are several reasons:

Unfortunately, these pushes also demonstrated a second disadvantage in trying to decompile everything possible: Since Turbo C++ lacks TASM's fine-grained ability to enforce code alignment on certain multiples of bytes, it might actually be unfeasible to link in a C-compiled object file at its intended original position in some of the .EXE files it's used in. Which… you're only going to notice once you encounter such a case. Due to the slightly jumbled order of functions in the 📝 second, shared code segment, that might be long after you decompiled and successfully linked in the function everywhere else.

And then you'll have to throw away that decompilation after all 😕 Oh well. In this specific case (the lookup table generator for horizontally flipping images), that decompilation was a mess anyway, and probably helped nobody. I could have added a dummy .OBJ that does nothing but enforce the needed 2-byte alignment before the function if I really insisted on keeping the C version, but it really wasn't worth it.


Now that I've also described yet another meta-issue, maybe there'll really be nothing to say about the next technical debt pushes? :onricdennat: Next up though: Back to actual progress again, with TH01. Which maybe even ends up pushing that game over the 50% RE mark?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0115, P0116
Commits:
967bb8b...e5328a3, e5328a3...03048c3
💰 Funded by:
Lmocinemod, Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ file-format+ cutscene+ blitting+ menu+

Finally, after a long while, we've got two pushes with barely anything to talk about! Continuing the road towards 100% PI for TH05, these were exactly the two pushes that TH05 MAINE.EXE PI was estimated to additionally cost, relative to TH04's. Consequently, they mostly went to TH05's unique data structures in the ending cutscenes, the score name registration menu, and the staff roll.

A unique feature in there is TH05's support for automatic text color changes in its ending scripts, based on the first full-width Shift-JIS codepoint in a line. The \c=codepoint,color commands at the top of the _ED??.TXT set up exactly this codepoint→color mapping. As far as I can tell, TH05 is the only Touhou game with a feature like this – even the Windows Touhou games went back to manually spelling out each color change.

The orb particles in TH05's staff roll also try to be a bit unique by using 32-bit X and Y subpixel variables for their current position. With still just 4 fractional bits, I can't really tell yet whether the extended range was actually necessary. Maybe due to how the "camera scrolling" through "space" was implemented? All other entities were pretty much the usual fare, though.
12.4, 4.4, and now a 28.4 fixed-point format… yup, 📝 C++ templates were definitely the right choice.

At the end of its staff roll, TH05 not only displays the usual performance verdict, but then scrolls in the scores at the end of each stage before switching to the high score menu. The simplest way to smoothly scroll between two full screens on a PC-98 involves a separate bitmap… which is exactly what TH05 does here, reserving 28,160 bytes of its global data segment for just one overly large monochrome 320×704 bitmap where both the screens are rendered to. That's… one benefit of splitting your game into multiple executables, I guess? :tannedcirno:
Not sure if it's common knowledge that you can actually scroll back and forth between the two screens with the Up and Down keys before moving to the score menu. I surely didn't know that before. But it makes sense – might as well get the most out of that memory.


The necessary groundwork for all of this may have actually made TH04's (yes, TH04's) MAINE.EXE technically position-independent. Didn't quite reach the same goal for TH05's – but what we did reach is ⅔ of all PC-98 Touhou code now being position-independent! Next up: Celebrating even more milestones, as -Tom- is about to finish development on his TH05 MAIN.EXE PI demo…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0113, P0114
Commits:
150d2c6...6204fdd, 6204fdd...967bb8b
💰 Funded by:
Lmocinemod
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ build-process+ pipeline+ tasm+ blitting+ file-format+ input+

Alright, tooling and technical debt. Shouldn't be really much to talk about… oh, wait, this is still ReC98 :tannedcirno:

For the tooling part, I finished up the remaining ergonomics and error handling for the 📝 sprite converter that Jonathan Campbell contributed two months ago. While I familiarized myself with the tool, I've actually ran into some unreported errors myself, so this was sort of important to me. Still got no command-line help in there, but the error messages can now do that job probably even better, since we would have had to write them anyway.

So, what's up with the technical debt then? Well, by now we've accumulated quite a number of 📝 ASM code slices that need to be either decompiled or clearly marked as undecompilable. Since we define those slices as "already reverse-engineered", that decision won't affect the numbers on the front page at all. But for a complete decompilation, we'd still have to do this someday. So, rather than incorporating this work into pushes that were purchased with the expectation of measurable progress in a certain area, let's take the "anything goes" pushes, and focus entirely on that during them.

The second code segment seemed like the best place to start with this, since it affects the largest number of games simultaneously. Starting with TH02, this segment contains a set of random "core" functions needed by the binary. Image formats, sounds, input, math, it's all there in some capacity. You could maybe call it all "libzun" or something like that? But for the time being, I simply went with the obvious name, seg2. Maybe I'll come up with something more convincing in the future.


Oh, but wait, why were we assembling all the previous undecompilable ASM translation units in the 16-bit build part? By moving those to the 32-bit part, we don't even need a 16-bit TASM in our list of dependencies, as long as our build process is not fully 16-bit.
And with that, ReC98 now also builds on Windows 95, and thus, every 32-bit Windows version. 🎉 Which is certainly the most user-visible improvement in all of these two pushes. :onricdennat:


Back in 2015, I already decompiled all of TH02's seg2 functions. As suggested by the Borland compiler, I tried to follow a "one translation unit per segment" layout, bundling the binary-specific contents via #include. In the end, it required two translation units – and that was even after manually inserting the original padding bytes via #pragma codestring… yuck. But it worked, compiled, and kept the linker's job (and, by extension, segmentation worries) to a minimum. And as long as it all matched the original binaries, it still counted as a valid reconstruction of ZUN's code. :zunpet:

However, that idea ultimately falls apart once TH03 starts mixing undecompilable ASM code inbetween C functions. Now, we officially have no choice but to use multiple C and ASM translation units, with maybe only just one or two #includes in them…

…or we finally start reconstructing the actual seg2 library, turning every sequence of related functions into its own translation unit. This way, we can simply reuse the once-compiled .OBJ files for all the binaries those functions appear in, without requiring that additional layer of translation units mirroring the original segmentation.
The best example for this is TH03's almost undecompilable function that generates a lookup table for horizontally flipping 8 1bpp pixels. It's part of every binary since TH03, but only used in that game. With the previous approach, we would have had to add 9 C translation units, which would all have just #included that one file. Now, we simply put the .OBJ file into the correct place on the linker command line, as soon as we can.

💡 And suddenly, the linker just inserts the correct padding bytes itself.

The most immediate gains there also happened to come from TH03. Which is also where we did get some tiny RE% and PI% gains out of this after all, by reverse-engineering some of its sprite blitting setup code. Sure, I should have done even more RE here, to also cover those 5 functions at the end of code segment #2 in TH03's MAIN.EXE that were in front of a number of library functions I already covered in this push. But let's leave that to an actual RE push 😛


All in all though, I was just getting started with this; the real gains in terms of removed ASM files are still to come. But in the meantime, the funding situation has become even better in terms of allowing me to focus on things nobody asked for. 🙂 So here's a slightly better idea: Instead of spending two more pushes on this, let's shoot for TH05 MAINE.EXE position independence next. If I manage to get it done, we'll have a 100% position-independent TH05 by the time -Tom- finishes his MAIN.EXE PI demo, rather than the 94% we'd get from just MAIN.EXE. That's bound to make a much better impression on all the people who will then (re-)discover the project.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0110
Commits:
2c7d86b...8b5c146
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ animation+ tcc+ shinki+ ex-alice+

… and just as I explained 📝 in the last post how decompilation is typically more sensible and efficient than ASM-level reverse-engineering, we have this push demonstrating a counter-example. The reason why the background particles and lines in the Shinki and EX-Alice battles contributed so much to position dependence was simply because they're accessed in a relatively large amount of functions, one for each different animation. Too many to spend the remaining precious crowdfunded time on reverse-engineering or even decompiling them all, especially now that everyone anticipates 100% PI for TH05's MAIN.EXE.

Therefore, I only decompiled the two functions of the line structure that also demonstrate best how it works, which in turn also helped with RE. Sadly, this revealed that we actually can't 📝 overload operator =() to get that nice assignment syntax for 12.4 fixed-point values, because one of those new functions relies on Turbo C++'s built-in optimizations for trivially copyable structures. Still, impressive that this abstraction caused no other issues for almost one year.

As for the structures themselves… nope, nothing to criticize this time! Sure, one good particle system would have been awesome, instead of having separate structures for the Stage 2 "starfield" particles and the one used in Shinki's battle, with hardcoded animations for both. But given the game's short development time, that was quite an acceptable compromise, I'd say.
And as for the lines, there just has to be a reason why the game reserves 20 lines per set, but only renders lines #0, #6, #12, and #18. We'll probably see once we get to look at those animation functions more closely.

This was quite a 📝 TH03-style RE push, which yielded way more PI% than RE%. But now that that's done, I can finally not get distracted by all that stuff when looking at the list of remaining memory references. Next up: The last few missing structures in TH05's MAIN.EXE!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0076, P0077
Commits:
222fc99...9ae9754, 9ae9754...f4eb7a8
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-, Splashman
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ resident+ gaiji+ tcc+

Well, that took twice as long as I thought, with the two pushes containing a lot more maintenance than actual new research. Spending some time improving both field names and types in 32th System's TH03 resident structure finally gives us all of those structures. Which means that we can now cover all the remaining decompilable ZUN.COM parts at once…

Oh wait, their main() functions have stayed largely identical since TH02? Time to clean up and separate that first, then… and combine two recent code generation observations into the solution to a decompilation puzzle from 4½ years ago. Alright, time to decomp-

Oh wait, we'd kinda like to properly RE all the code in TH03-TH05 that deals with loading and saving .CFG files. Almost every outside contributor wanted to grab this supposedly low-hanging fruit a lot earlier, but (of course) always just for a single game, while missing how the format evolved.

So, ZUN.COM. For some reason, people seem to consider it particularly important, even though it contains neither any game logic nor any code specific to PC-98 hardware… All that this decompilable part does is to initialize a game's .CFG file, allocate an empty resident structure using master.lib functions, release it after you quit the game, error-check all that, and print some playful messages~ (OK, TH05's also directly fills the resident structure with all data from MIKO.CFG, which all the other games do in OP.EXE.) At least modders can now freely change and extend all the resident structures, as well as the .CFG files? And translators can translate those messages that you won't see on a decently fast emulator anyway? Have fun, I guess 🤷‍

And you can in fact do this right now – even for TH04 and TH05, whose ZUN.COM currently isn't rebuilt by ReC98. There is actually a rather involved reason for this:

So yeah, no meaningful RE and PI progress at any of these levels. Heck, even as a modder, you can just replace the zun zun_res (TH02), zun -5 (TH03), or zun -s (TH04/TH05) calls in GAME.BAT with a direct call to your modified *RES*.COM. And with the alternative being "manually typing 0 and 1 bits into a text file", editing the sprites in TH05's GJINIT.COM is way more comfortable in a binary sprite editor anyway.

For me though, the best part in all of this was that it finally made sense to throw out the old Borland C++ run-time assembly slices 🗑 This giant waste of time became obvious 5 years ago, but any ASM dump of a .COM file would have needed rather ugly workarounds without those slices. Now that all .COM binaries that were originally written in C are compiled from C, we can all enjoy slightly faster grepping over the entire repository, which now has 229 fewer files. Productivity will skyrocket! :tannedcirno:

Next up: Three weeks of almost full-time ReC98 work! Two more PI-focused pushes to finish this TH05 stretch first, before switching priorities to TH01 again.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0071
Commits:
327021b...4bb04ab
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment, -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- gameplay+ player+

Turns out that covering TH03's 128-byte player structure was way more insightful than expected! And while it doesn't include every bit of per-player data, we still got to know quite a bit about the game from just trying to name its members:

The next TH03 pushes can now cover all the functions that reference this structure in one way or another, and actually commit all this research and translate it into some RE%. Since the non-TH05 priorities have become a bit unclear after the last 50 € RE contribution though (as of this writing, it's still 10 € to decide on what game to cover in two RE pushes!), I'll be returning to TH05 until that's decided.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0070
Commits:
a931758...327021b
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- gameplay+ score+

As noted in 📝 P0061, TH03 gameplay RE is indeed going to progress very slowly in the beginning. A lot of the initial progress won't even be reflected in the RE% – there are just so many features in this game that are intertwined into each other, and I only consider functions to be "reverse-engineered" once we understand every involved piece of code and data, and labeled every absolute memory reference in it. (Yes, that means that the percentages on the front page are actually underselling ReC98's progress quite a bit, and reflect a pretty low bound of our actual understanding of the games.)

So, when I get asked to look directly at gameplay code right now, it's quite the struggle to find a place that can be covered within a push or two and that would immediately benefit scoreplayers. The basics of score and combo handling themselves managed to fit in pretty well, though:

Oh well, at least we still got a bit of PI% out of this one. From this point though, the next push (or two) should be enough to cover the big 128-byte player structure – which by itself might not be immediately interesting to scoreplayers, but surely is quite a blocker for everything else.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0065
Commits:
9faa29a...042b780
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ resident+

A~nd resident structures ended up being exactly the right thing to start off the new year with. WindowsTiger and spaztron64 have already been pushing for them with their own reverse-engineering, and together with my own recent GENSOU.SCR RE work, we've clarified just enough context around the harder-to-explain values to make both TH04's and TH05's structures fit nicely into the typical time frame of a single push.

With all the apparently obvious and seemingly just duplicated values, it has always been easy to do a superficial job for most of the structure, then lose motivation for the last few unknown fields. Pretty glad to got this finally covered; I've heard that people are going to write trainer tools now?

Also, where better to slot in a push that, in terms of figures, seems to deliver 0% RE and only miniscule PI progress, than at the end of Touhou Patch Center's 5-push order that already had multiple pushes yielding above-average progress? :onricdennat: As usual, we'll be reaping the rewards of this work in the next few TH04/TH05 pushes…

…whenever they get funded, that is, as for January, the backers have shifted the priorities towards TH01 and TH03. TH01 especially is something I'm quite excited about, as we're finally going to see just how fast this bloated game is really going to progress. Are you excited?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0064
Commits:
80cec5b...9faa29a
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ menu+ position-independence+

🎉 TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE are now fully position-independent! 🎉

What does this mean?

You can now add any data or code to the main menus of the two games, by simply editing the ReC98 source, writing your mod in ASM or C/C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely reverse-engineered yet, let alone decompiled. Pretty much all of that is still ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now.

Since this push was otherwise pretty unremarkable, I made a video demonstrating a few basic things you can do with this:

Now, what to do for the last outstanding Touhou Patch Center push? Bullets, or resident structures? :thonk:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0061
Commits:
96684f4...5f4f5d8
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- gameplay+ player+ shot+ animation+

… nope, with a game whose MAIN.EXE is still just 5% reverse-engineered and which naturally makes heavy use of structures, there's still a lot more PI groundwork to be done before RE progress can speed up to the levels that we've now reached with TH05. The good news is that this game is (now) way easier to understand: In contrast to TH04 and TH05, where we needed to work towards player shots over a two-digit number of pushes, TH03 only needed two for SPRITE16, and a half one for the playfield shaking mechanism. After that, I could even already decompile the per-frame shot update and render functions, thanks to TH03's high number of code segments. Now, even the big 128-byte player structure doesn't seem all too far off.

Then again, as TH03 shares no code with any other game, this actually was a completely average PI push. For the remaining three, we'll return to TH04 and TH05 though, which should more than make up for the slight drop in RE speed after this one.

In other news, we've now also reached peak C++, with the introduction of templates! TH03 stores movement speeds in a 4.4 fixed-point format, which is an 8-bit spin on the usual 16-bit, 12.4 fixed-point format.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0060
Commits:
29385dd...73f5ae7
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ blitting+ micro-optimization+ waste+

So, where to start? Well, TH04 bullets are hard, so let's procrastinate start with TH03 instead :tannedcirno: The 📝 sprite display functions are the obvious blocker for any structure describing a sprite, and therefore most meaningful PI gains in that game… and I actually did manage to fit a decompilation of those three functions into exactly the amount of time that the Touhou Patch Center community votes alloted to TH03 reverse-engineering!

And a pretty amazing one at that. The original code was so obviously written in ASM and was just barely decompilable by exclusively using register pseudovariables and a bit of goto, but I was able to abstract most of that away, not least thanks to a few helpful optimization properties of Turbo C++… seriously, I can't stop marveling at this ancient compiler. The end result is both readable, clear, and dare I say portable?! To anyone interested in porting TH03, take a look. How painful would it be to port that away from 16-bit x86?

However, this push is also a typical example that the RE/PI priorities can only control what I look at, and the outcome can actually differ greatly. Even though the priorities were 65% RE and 35% PI, the progress outcome was +0.13% RE and +1.35% PI. But hey, we've got one more push with a focus on TH03 PI, so maybe that one will include more RE than PI, and then everything will end up just as ordered? :onricdennat:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0056
Commits:
b28cefc...c09446a
💰 Funded by:
rosenrose, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- thief+

No priorities, again…?! Please don't do this to me… 😕

Well, let's not continue with TH05 then 😛 And instead use the occasion to commit this interesting discovery, made by @m1yur1 last year. Yup, TH03's "ZUNSP" sprite driver is actually a "rebranded" version of Promisence Soft's SPRITE16.COM. Sure, you were allowed to use this driver in your own game, but replacing the copyright with your own isn't exactly the nicest thing to do… That now makes three library programmers that ZUN didn't credit. Makes me wonder what makes M. Kajihara so special. Probably the fact that Touhou has always been about the music for ZUN, first and foremost.

But what makes this more than a piece of trivia is the fact that Promiscence Soft's SPRITE16 sample game StormySpace was bundled with documentation on the driver. Shoutout to the Neo Kobe PC-98 collection for preserving he original release!

That means more documented third-party code that we don't necessarily have to reverse-engineer, just like master.lib or KAJA's PMD driver. However, the PC-98 EGC is rather complex and definitely not designed for alpha-tested 16-color sprite blitting. So it (once again) took quite a while to make sense of SPRITE16's code and the available documentation on the EGC, to come up with satisfying function names. As a result, I'm going to distribute the entire RE work related to TH03's SPRITE16 interface across a total of three pushes, this one being the first of them.

Next up, we do have more TH05 progress though, now for the first time specifically with position independence in mind. Pretty excited for this one!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0051, P0052, P0053
Commits:
6ed8e60...3ba536a
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ animation+ micro-optimization+ hud+

Boss explosions! And… urgh, I really also had to wade through that overly complicated HUD rendering code. Even though I had to pick -Tom-'s 7th push here as well, the worst of that is still to come. TH04 and TH05 exclusively store the current and high score internally as unpacked little-endian BCD, with some pretty dense ASM code involving the venerable x86 BCD instructions to update it.

So, what's actually the goal here. Since I was given no priorities :onricdennat:, I still haven't had to (potentially) waste time researching whether we really can decompile from anywhere else inside a segment other than backwards from the end. So, the most efficient place for decompilation right now still is the end of TH05's main_01_TEXT segment. With maybe 1 or 2 more reverse-engineering commits, we'd have everything for an efficient decompilation up to sub_123AD. And that mass of code just happens to include all the shot type control functions, and makes up 3,007 instructions in total, or 12% of the entire remaining unknown code in MAIN.EXE.

So, the most reasonable thing would be to actually put some of the upcoming decompilation pushes towards reverse-engineering that missing part. I don't think that's a bad deal since it will allow us to mod TH05 shot types in C sooner, but zorg and qp might disagree :thonk:

Next up: thcrap TL notes, followed by finally finishing GhostPhanom's old ReC98 future-proofing pushes. I really don't want to decompile without a proper build system.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0043, P0044, P0045
Commits:
261d503...612beb8
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ pc98+ blitting+ uth05win+

Turns out I had only been about half done with the drawing routines. The rest was all related to redrawing the scrolling stage backgrounds after other sprites were drawn on top. Since the PC-98 does have hardware-accelerated scrolling, but no hardware-accelerated sprites, everything that draws animated sprites into a scrolling VRAM must then also make sure that the background tiles covered by the sprite are redrawn in the next frame, which required a bit of ZUN code. And that are the functions that have been in the way of the expected rapid reverse-engineering progress that uth05win was supposed to bring. So, looks like everything's going to go really fast now?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0025, P0026, P0027
Commits:
0cde4b7...261d503
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03- th04+ th05+ pc98+ blitting+ file-format+ mod+

… yeah, no, we won't get very far without figuring out these drawing routines.
Which process data that comes from the .STD files. Which has various arrays related to the background… including one to specify the scrolling speed. And wait, setting that to 0 actually is what starts a boss battle?

So, have a TH05 Boss Rush patch: 2018-12-26-TH05BossRush.zip Theoretically, this should have also worked for TH04, but for some reason, the Stage 3 boss gets stuck on the first phase if we do this?

Here's the diff for the Boss Rush. Turning it into a thcrap-style Skipgame patch is left as an exercise for the reader.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0009
Commits:
79cc3ed...141baa4
💰 Funded by:
DTM
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ file-format+

While we're waiting for Bruno to release the next thcrap build with ANM header patching, here are the resulting commits of the ReC98 CDG/CD2 special offer purchased by DTM, reverse-engineering all code that covers these formats.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0019, P0020, P0021, P0022
Commits:
c592464, cbe8a37, 8dfc2cd, 79cc3ed
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03- th04+ th05+ pc98+ input+
> OK, let's do a quick ReC98 update before going back to thcrap, shouldn't take long > Hm, all that input code is kind of in the way, would be nice to cover that first to ease comparisons with uth05win's source code > What the hell, why does ZUN do this? Need to do more research > … > OK, research done, wait, what are those other functions doing? > Wha, everything about this is just ever so slightly awkward

Which ended up turning this one update into 2/10, 3/10, 4/10 and 5/10 of zorg's reverse-engineering commits. But at least we now got all shared input functions of TH02-TH05 covered and well understood.