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Showing all posts tagged score-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0149, P0150, P0151, P0152
⌨ Commits:
e1a26bb...05e4c4a, 05e4c4a...768251d, 768251d...4d24ca5, 4d24ca5...81fc861
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, Ember2528, -Tom-, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ bullet+ animation+ score- glitch+ jank+ waste+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ uth05win+

…or maybe not that soon, as it would have only wasted time to untangle the bullet update commits from the rest of the progress. So, here's all the bullet spawning code in TH04 and TH05 instead. I hope you're ready for this, there's a lot to talk about!

(For the sake of readability, "bullets" in this blog post refers to the white 8×8 pellets and all 16×16 bullets loaded from MIKO16.BFT, nothing else.)


But first, what was going on 📝 in 2020? Spent 4 pushes on the basic types and constants back then, still ended up confusing a couple of things, and even getting some wrong. Like how TH05's "bullet slowdown" flag actually always prevents slowdown and fires bullets at a constant speed instead. :tannedcirno: Or how "random spread" is not the best term to describe that unused bullet group type in TH04.
Or that there are two distinct ways of clearing all bullets on screen, which deserve different names:

Bullets are zapped at the end of most midboss and boss phases, and cleared everywhere else – most notably, during bombs, when losing a life, or as rewards for extends or a maximized Dream bonus. The Bonus!! points awarded for zapping bullets are calculated iteratively, so it's not trivial to give an exact formula for these. For a small number 𝑛 of bullets, it would exactly be 5𝑛³ - 10𝑛² + 15𝑛 points – or, using uth05win's (correct) recursive definition, Bonus(𝑛) = Bonus(𝑛-1) + 15𝑛² - 5𝑛 + 10. However, one of the internal step variables is capped at a different number of points for each difficulty (and game), after which the points only increase linearly. Hence, "semi-exponential".


On to TH04's bullet spawn code then, because that one can at least be decompiled. And immediately, we have to deal with a pointless distinction between regular bullets, with either a decelerating or constant velocity, and special bullets, with preset velocity changes during their lifetime. That preset has to be set somewhere, so why have separate functions? In TH04, this separation continues even down to the lowest level of functions, where values are written into the global bullet array. TH05 merges those two functions into one, but then goes too far and uses self-modifying code to save a grand total of two local variables… Luckily, the rest of its actual code is identical to TH04.

Most of the complexity in bullet spawning comes from the (thankfully shared) helper function that calculates the velocities of the individual bullets within a group. Both games handle each group type via a large switch statement, which is where TH04 shows off another Turbo C++ 4.0 optimization: If the range of case values is too sparse to be meaningfully expressed in a jump table, it usually generates a linear search through a second value table. But with the -G command-line option, it instead generates branching code for a binary search through the set of cases. 𝑂(log ð‘›) as the worst case for a switch statement in a C++ compiler from 1994… that's so cool. But still, why are the values in TH04's group type enum all over the place to begin with? :onricdennat:
Unfortunately, this optimization is pretty rare in PC-98 Touhou. It only shows up here and in a few places in TH02, compared to at least 50 switch value tables.

In all of its micro-optimized pointlessness, TH05's undecompilable version at least fixes some of TH04's redundancy. While it's still not even optimal, it's at least a decently written piece of ASM… if you take the time to understand what's going on there, because it certainly took quite a bit of that to verify that all of the things which looked like bugs or quirks were in fact correct. And that's how the code for this function ended up with 35% comments and blank lines before I could confidently call it "reverse-engineered"…
Oh well, at least it finally fixes a correctness issue from TH01 and TH04, where an invalid bullet group type would fill all remaining slots in the bullet array with identical versions of the first bullet.

Something that both games also share in these functions is an over-reliance on globals for return values or other local state. The most ridiculous example here: Tuning the speed of a bullet based on rank actually mutates the global bullet template… which ZUN then works around by adding a wrapper function around both regular and special bullet spawning, which saves the base speed before executing that function, and restores it afterward. :zunpet: Add another set of wrappers to bypass that exact tuning, and you've expanded your nice 1-function interface to 4 functions. Oh, and did I mention that TH04 pointlessly duplicates the first set of wrapper functions for 3 of the 4 difficulties, which can't even be explained with "debugging reasons"? That's 10 functions then… and probably explains why I've procrastinated this feature for so long.

At this point, I also finally stopped decompiling ZUN's original ASM just for the sake of it. All these small TH05 functions would look horribly unidiomatic, are identical to their decompiled TH04 counterparts anyway, except for some unique constant… and, in the case of TH05's rank-based speed tuning function, actually become undecompilable as soon as we want to return a C++ class to preserve the semantic meaning of the return value. Mainly, this is because Turbo C++ does not allow register pseudo-variables like _AX or _AL to be cast into class types, even if their size matches. Decompiling that function would have therefore lowered the quality of the rest of the decompiled code, in exchange for the additional maintenance and compile-time cost of another translation unit. Not worth it – and for a TH05 port, you'd already have to decompile all the rest of the bullet spawning code anyway!


The only thing in there that was still somewhat worth being decompiled was the pre-spawn clipping and collision detection function. Due to what's probably a micro-optimization mistake, the TH05 version continues to spawn a bullet even if it was spawned on top of the player. This might sound like it has a different effect on gameplay… until you realize that the player got hit in this case and will either lose a life or deathbomb, both of which will cause all on-screen bullets to be cleared anyway. So it's at most a visual glitch.

But while we're at it, can we please stop talking about hitboxes? At least in the context of TH04 and TH05 bullets. The actual collision detection is described way better as a kill delta of 8×8 pixels between the center points of the player and a bullet. You can distribute these pixels to any combination of bullet and player "hitboxes" that make up 8×8. 4×4 around both the player and bullets? 1×1 for bullets, and 8×8 for the player? All equally valid… or perhaps none of them, once you keep in mind that other entity types might have different kill deltas. With that in mind, the concept of a "hitbox" turns into just a confusing abstraction.

The same is true for the 36×44 graze box delta. For some reason, this one is not exactly around the center of a bullet, but shifted to the right by 2 pixels. So, a bullet can be grazed up to 20 pixels right of the player, but only up to 16 pixels left of the player. uth05win also spotted this… and rotated the deltas clockwise by 90°?!


Which brings us to the bullet updates… for which I still had to research a decompilation workaround, because 📝 P0148 turned out to not help at all? Instead, the solution was to lie to the compiler about the true segment distance of the popup function and declare its signature far rather than near. This allowed ZUN to save that ridiculous overhead of 1 additional far function call/return per frame, and those precious 2 bytes in the BSS segment that he didn't have to spend on a segment value. 📝 Another function that didn't have just a single declaration in a common header file… really, 📝 how were these games even built???

The function itself is among the longer ones in both games. It especially stands out in the indentation department, with 7 levels at its most indented point – and that's the minimum of what's possible without goto. Only two more notable discoveries there:

  1. Bullets are the only entity affected by Slow Mode. If the number of bullets on screen is ≥ (24 + (difficulty * 8) + rank) in TH04, or (42 + (difficulty * 8)) in TH05, Slow Mode reduces the frame rate by 33%, by waiting for one additional VSync event every two frames.
    The code also reveals a second tier, with 50% slowdown for a slightly higher number of bullets, but that conditional branch can never be executed :zunpet:
  2. Bullets must have been grazed in a previous frame before they can be collided with. (Note how this does not apply to bullets that spawned on top of the player, as explained earlier!)

Whew… When did ReC98 turn into a full-on code review?! 😅 And after all this, we're still not done with TH04 and TH05 bullets, with all the special movement types still missing. That should be less than one push though, once we get to it. Next up: Back to TH01 and Konngara! Now have fun rewriting the Touhou Wiki Gameplay pages 😛

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0092, P0093, P0094
⌨ Commits:
29c5a73...4403308, 4403308...0e73029, 0e73029...57a8487
💰 Funded by:
Yanga, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ menu+ score- jank+ waste+

Three pushes to decompile the TH01 high score menu… because it's completely terrible, and needlessly complicated in pretty much every aspect:

  • Another, final set of differences between the REIIDEN.EXE and FUUIN.EXE versions of the code. Which are so insignificant that it must mean that ZUN kept this code in two separate, manually and imperfectly synced files. The REIIDEN.EXE version, only shown when game-overing, automatically jumps to the enter/終 button after the 8th character was entered, and also has a completely invisible timeout that force-enters a high score name after 1000… key presses? Not frames? Why. Like, how do you even realistically such a number. (Best guess: It's a hidden easter egg to amuse players who place drinking glasses on cursor keys. Or beer bottles.)
    That's all the differences that are maybe visible if you squint hard enough. On top of that though, we got a bunch of further, minor code organization differences that serve no purpose other than to waste decompilation time, and certainly did their part in stretching this out to 3 pushes instead of 2.
  • Entered names are restricted to a set of 16-bit, full-width Shift-JIS codepoints, yet are still accessed as 8-bit byte arrays everywhere. This bloats both the C++ and generated ASM code with needless byte splits, swaps, and bit shifts. Same for the route kanji. You have this 16-, heck, even 32-bit CPU, why not use it?! (Fun fact: FUUIN.EXE is explicitly compiled for a 80186, for the most part – unlike REIIDEN.EXE, which does use Turbo C++'s 80386 mode.)
  • The sensible way of storing the current position of the alphabet cursor would simply be two variables, indicating the logical row and column inside the character map. When rendering, you'd then transform these into screen space. This can keep the on-screen position constants in a single place of code.
    TH01 does the opposite: The selected character is stored directly in terms of its on-screen position, which is then mapped back to a character index for every processed input and the subsequent screen update. There's no notion of a logical row or column anywhere, and consequently, the position constants are vomited all over the code.
  • Which might not be as bad if the character map had a uniform grid structure, with no gaps. But the one in TH01 looks like this: And with no sense of abstraction anywhere, both input handling and rendering end up with a separate if branch for at least 4 of the 6 rows.

In the end, I just gave up with my usual redundancy reduction efforts for this one. Anyone wanting to change TH01's high score name entering code would be better off just rewriting the entire thing properly.

And that's all of the shared code in TH01! Both OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE are now only missing the actual main menu and ending code, respectively. Next up, though: The long awaited TH01 PI push. Which will not only deliver 100% PI for OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE, but also probably quite some gains in REIIDEN.EXE. With now over 30% of the game decompiled, it's about time we get to look at some gameplay code!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0084
⌨ Commits:
dfac2f2...110d6dd
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ score- tasm+

Final TH01 RE push for the time being, and as expected, we've got the superficially final piece of shared code between the TH01 executables. However, just having a single implementation for loading and recreating the REYHI*.DAT score files would have been way above ZUN's standards of consistency. So ZUN had the unique idea to mix up the file I/O APIs, using master.lib functions in REIIDEN.EXE, and POSIX functions (along with error messages and disabled interrupts) in FUUIN.EXE… :zunpet: Could have been worse though, as it was possible to abstract that away quite nicely.

That code wasn't quite in the natural way of decompilation either. As it turns out though, 📝 segment splitting isn't so painful after all if one of the new segments only has a few functions. Definitely going to do that more often from now on, since it allows a much larger number of functions to be immediately decompiled. Which is always superior to somehow transforming a function's ASM into a form that I can confidently call "reverse-engineered", only to revisit it again later for its decompilation.

And while I unfortunately missed 25% of total RE by a bit, this push reached two other and perhaps even more significant milestones:

  • 📝 In a little over 6 months, we've doubled the amount of reverse-engineered PC-98 Touhou game code! 📈
  • After (finally) compressing all unknown parts of the BSS segments using arrays, the number of remaining lines in the REIIDEN.EXE ASM dump has fallen below TASM's limit of 65,535. Which means that we no longer need that annoying th01_reiiden_2.inc file that everyone has forgotten about at least once.

Next up, PI milestones!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0070
⌨ Commits:
a931758...327021b
💰 Funded by:
KirbyComment
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ gameplay+ score-

As noted in 📝 P0061, TH03 gameplay RE is indeed going to progress very slowly in the beginning. A lot of the initial progress won't even be reflected in the RE% – there are just so many features in this game that are intertwined into each other, and I only consider functions to be "reverse-engineered" once we understand every involved piece of code and data, and labeled every absolute memory reference in it. (Yes, that means that the percentages on the front page are actually underselling ReC98's progress quite a bit, and reflect a pretty low bound of our actual understanding of the games.)

So, when I get asked to look directly at gameplay code right now, it's quite the struggle to find a place that can be covered within a push or two and that would immediately benefit scoreplayers. The basics of score and combo handling themselves managed to fit in pretty well, though:

  • Just like TH04 and TH05, TH03 stores the current score as 8 binary-coded decimal digits. Since the last constant 0 is not included, the maximum score displayable without glitches therefore is 999,999,990 points, but the game will happily store up to 24,699,999,990 points before the score wraps back to 0.
  • There are (surprisingly?) only 6 places where the game actually adds points to the score. Not quite sure about all of them yet, but they (of course) include ending a combo, killing enemies, and the bonus at the end of a round.
  • Combos can be continued for 80 frames after a 2-hit. The hit counter can only be increased in the first 48, and effectively resets to 0 for the last 32, when the Spell Point value starts blinking.
  • TH03 can track a total of 16 independent "hit combo sources" per player, simultaneously. These are not related to the number of actual explosions; rather, each explosion is assigned to one of the 16 slots when it spawns, and all consecutive explosions spawned from that one will then add to the hit combo in that slot. The hit number displayed in the top left is simply the largest one among all these.

Oh well, at least we still got a bit of PI% out of this one. From this point though, the next push (or two) should be enough to cover the big 128-byte player structure – which by itself might not be immediately interesting to scoreplayers, but surely is quite a blocker for everything else.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0063
⌨ Commits:
034ae4b...8dbb450
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ score- waste+ jank+

Almost!

Just like most of the time, it was more sensible to cover GENSOU.SCR, the last structure missing in TH05's OP.EXE, everywhere it's used, rather than just rushing out OP.EXE position independence. I did have to look into all of the functions to fully RE it after all, and to find out whether the unused fields actually are unused. The only thing that kept this push from yielding even more above-average progress was the sheer inconsistency in how the games implemented the operations on this PC-98 equivalent of score*.dat:

  • OP.EXE declares two structure instances, for simultaneous access to both Reimu and Marisa scores. TH05 with its 4 playable characters instead uses a single one, and overwrites it successively for each character when drawing the high score menu – meaning, you'd only see Yuuka's scores when looking at the structure inside the rendered high score menu. However, it still declares the TH04 "Marisa" structure as a leftover… and also decodes it and verifies its checksum, despite nothing being ever loaded into it
  • MAIN.EXE uses a separate ASM implementation of the decoding and encoding functions :godzun:
  • TH05's MAIN.EXE also reimplements the basic loading functions in ASM – without the code to regenerate GENSOU.SCR with default data if the file is missing or corrupted. That actually makes sense, since any regeneration is already done in OP.EXE, which always has to load that file anyway to check how much has been cleared
  • However, there is a regeneration function in TH05's MAINE.EXE… which actually generates different default data: OP.EXE consistently sets Extra Stage records to Stage 1, while MAINE.EXE uses the same place-based stage numbering that both versions use for the regular ranks

Technically though, TH05's OP.EXE is position-independent now, and the rest are (should be? :tannedcirno:) merely false positives. However, TH04's is still missing another structure, in addition to its false positives. So, let's wait with the big announcement until the next push… which will also come with a demo video of what will be possible then.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0031, P0032, P0033
⌨ Commits:
dea40ad...9f764fa, 9f764fa...e6294c2, e6294c2...6cdd229
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ hud+ score- tasm+ tcc+ micro-optimization+ jank+

The glacial pace continues, with TH05's unnecessarily, inappropriately micro-optimized, and hence, un-decompilable code for rendering the current and high score, as well as the enemy health / dream / power bars. While the latter might still pass as well-written ASM, the former goes to such ridiculous levels that it ends up being technically buggy. If you enjoy quality ZUN code, it's definitely worth a read.

In TH05, this all still is at the end of code segment #1, but in TH04, the same code lies all over the same segment. And since I really wanted to move that code into its final form now, I finally did the research into decompiling from anywhere else in a segment.

Turns out we actually can! It's kinda annoying, though: After splitting the segment after the function we want to decompile, we then need to group the two new segments back together into one "virtual segment" matching the original one. But since all ASM in ReC98 heavily relies on being assembled in MASM mode, we then start to suffer from MASM's group addressing quirk. Which then forces us to manually prefix every single function call

  • from inside the group
  • to anywhere else within the newly created segment
with the group name. It's stupidly boring busywork, because of all the function calls you mustn't prefix. Special tooling might make this easier, but I don't have it, and I'm not getting crowdfunded for it.

So while you now definitely can request any specific thing in any of the 5 games to be decompiled right now, it will take slightly longer, and cost slightly more.
(Except for that one big segment in TH04, of course.)

Only one function away from the TH05 shot type control functions now!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0018
⌨ Commits:
746681d...178d589
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player+ score- uth05win+

What do you do if the TH06 text image feature for thcrap should have been done 3 days™ ago, but keeps getting more and more complex, and you have a ton of other pushes to deliver anyway? Get some distraction with some light ReC98 reverse-engineering work. This is where it becomes very obvious how much uth05win helps us with all the games, not just TH05.

5a5c347 is the most important one in there, this was the missing substructure that now makes every other sprite-like structure trivial to figure out.