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📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0172, P0173
49e6789...2d5491e, 2d5491e...27f901c
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ file-format+ menu- score+ blitting+ glitch+

TH03 finally passed 20% RE, and the newly decompiled code contains no serious ZUN bugs! What a nice way to end the year.

There's only a single unlockable feature in TH03: Chiyuri and Yumemi as playable characters, unlocked after a 1CC on any difficulty. Just like the Extra Stages in TH04 and TH05, YUME.NEM contains a single designated variable for this unlocked feature, making it trivial to craft a fully unlocked score file without recording any high scores that others would have to compete against. So, we can now put together a complete set for all PC-98 Touhou games: 2021-12-27-Fully-unlocked-clean-score-files.zip It would have been cool to set the randomly generated encryption keys in these files to a fixed value so that they cancel out and end up not actually encrypting the file. Too bad that TH03 also started feeding each encrypted byte back into its stream cipher, which makes this impossible.

The main loading and saving code turned out to be the second-cleanest implementation of a score file format in PC-98 Touhou, just behind TH02. Only two of the YUME.NEM functions come with nonsensical differences between OP.EXE and MAINL.EXE, rather than 📝 all of them, as in TH01 or 📝 too many of them, as in TH04 and TH05. As for the rest of the per-difficulty structure though… well, it quickly becomes clear why this was the final score file format to be RE'd. The name, score, and stage fields are directly stored in terms of the internal REGI*.BFT sprite IDs used on the high score screen. TH03 also stores 10 score digits for each place rather than the 9 possible ones, keeps any leading 0 digits, and stores the letters of entered names in reverse order… yeah, let's decompile the high score screen as well, for a full understanding of why ZUN might have done all that. (Answer: For no reason at all. :zunpet:)

And wow, what a breath of fresh air. It's surely not good-code: The overlapping shadows resulting from using a 24-pixel letterspacing with 32-pixel glyphs in the name column led ZUN to do quite a lot of unnecessary and slightly confusing rendering work when moving the cursor back and forth, and he even forgot about the EGC there. But it's nowhere close to the level of jank we saw in 📝 TH01's high score menu last year. Good to see that ZUN had learned a thing or two by his third game – especially when it comes to storing the character map cursor in terms of a character ID, and improving the layout of the character map:

That's almost a nicely regular grid there. With the question mark and the double-wide SP, BS, and END options, the cursor movement code only comes with a reasonable two exceptions, which are easily handled. And while I didn't get this screen completely decompiled, one additional push was enough to cover all important code there.

The only potential glitch on this screen is a result of ZUN's continued use of binary-coded decimal digits without any bounds check or cap. Like the in-game HUD score display in TH04 and TH05, TH03's high score screen simply uses the next glyph in the character set for the most significant digit of any score above 1,000,000,000 points – in this case, the period. Still, it only really gets bad at 8,000,000,000 points: Once the glyphs are exhausted, the blitting function ends up accessing garbage data and filling the entire screen with garbage pixels. For comparison though, the current world record is 133,650,710 points, so good luck getting 8 billion in the first place.

Next up: Starting 2022 with the long-awaited decompilation of TH01's Sariel fight! Due to the 📝 recent price increase, we now got a window in the cap that is going to remain open until tomorrow, providing an early opportunity to set a new priority after Sariel is done.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0165, P0166, P0167
7a0e5d8...f2bca01, f2bca01...e697907, e697907...c2de6ab
💰 Funded by:
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay+ animation+ blitting+ bullet+ glitch+ waste+ boss+ singyoku+ mima-th01+ elis+ tcc+ menu-

OK, TH01 missile bullets. Can we maybe have a well-behaved entity type, without any weirdness? Just once?

Ehh, kinda. Apart from another 150 bytes wasted on unused structure members, this code is indeed more on the low end in terms of overall jank. It does become very obvious why dodging these missiles in the YuugenMagan, Mima, and Elis fights feels so awful though: An unfair 46×46 pixel hitbox around Reimu's center pixel, combined with the comeback of 📝 interlaced rendering, this time in every stage. ZUN probably did this because missiles are the only 16×16 sprite in TH01 that is blitted to unaligned X positions, which effectively ends up touching a 32×16 area of VRAM per sprite.
But even if we assume VRAM writes to be the bottleneck here, it would have been totally possible to render every missile in every frame at roughly the same amount of CPU time that the original game uses for interlaced rendering:

That's an optimization that would have significantly benefitted the game, in contrast to all of the fake ones introduced in later games. Then again, this optimization is actually something that the later games do, and it might have in fact been necessary to achieve their higher bullet counts without significant slowdown.

Unfortunately, it was only worth decompiling half of the missile code right now, thanks to gratuitous FPU usage in the other half, where 📝 double variables are compared to float literals. That one will have to wait 📝 until after SinGyoku.

After some effectively unused Mima sprite effect code that is so broken that it's impossible to make sense out of it, we get to the final feature I wanted to cover for all bosses in parallel before returning to Sariel: The separate sprite background storage for moving or animated boss sprites in the Mima, Elis, and Sariel fights. But, uh… why is this necessary to begin with? Doesn't TH01 already reserve the other VRAM page for backgrounds?
Well, these sprites are quite big, and ZUN didn't want to blit them from main memory on every frame. After all, TH01 and TH02 had a minimum required clock speed of 33 MHz, half of the speed required for the later three games. So, he simply blitted these boss sprites to both VRAM pages, leading the usual unblitting calls to only remove the other sprites on top of the boss. However, these bosses themselves want to move across the screen… and this makes it necessary to save the stage background behind them in some other way.

Enter .PTN, and its functions to capture a 16×16 or 32×32 square from VRAM into a sprite slot. No problem with that approach in theory, as the size of all these bigger sprites is a multiple of 32×32; splitting a larger sprite into these smaller 32×32 chunks makes the code look just a little bit clumsy (and, of course, slower).
But somewhere during the development of Mima's fight, ZUN apparently forgot that those sprite backgrounds existed. And once Mima's 🚫 casting sprite is blitted on top of her regular sprite, using just regular sprite transparency, she ends up with her infamous third arm:

Ironically, there's an unused code path in Mima's unblit function where ZUN assumes a height of 48 pixels for Mima's animation sprites rather than the actual 64. This leads to even clumsier .PTN function calls for the bottom 128×16 pixels… Failing to unblit the bottom 16 pixels would have also yielded that third arm, although it wouldn't have looked as natural. Still wouldn't say that it was intentional; maybe this casting sprite was just added pretty late in the game's development?

So, mission accomplished, Sariel unblocked… at 2¼ pushes. :thonk: That's quite some time left for some smaller stage initialization code, which bundles a bunch of random function calls in places where they logically really don't belong. The stage opening animation then adds a bunch of VRAM inter-page copies that are not only redundant but can't even be understood without knowing the hidden internal state of the last VRAM page accessed by previous ZUN code…
In better news though: Turbo C++ 4.0 really doesn't seem to have any complexity limit on inlining arithmetic expressions, as long as they only operate on compile-time constants. That's how we get macro-free, compile-time Shift-JIS to JIS X 0208 conversion of the individual code points in the 東方★靈異伝 string, in a compiler from 1994. As long as you don't store any intermediate results in variables, that is… :tannedcirno:

But wait, there's more! With still ¼ of a push left, I also went for the boss defeat animation, which includes the route selection after the SinGyoku fight.
As in all other instances, the 2× scaled font is accomplished by first rendering the text at regular 1× resolution to the other, invisible VRAM page, and then scaled from there to the visible one. However, the route selection is unique in that its scaled text is both drawn transparently on top of the stage background (not onto a black one), and can also change colors depending on the selection. It would have been no problem to unblit and reblit the text by rendering the 1× version to a position on the invisible VRAM page that isn't covered by the 2× version on the visible one, but ZUN (needlessly) clears the invisible page before rendering any text. :zunpet: Instead, he assigned a separate VRAM color for both the 魔界 and 地獄 options, and only changed the palette value for these colors to white or gray, depending on the correct selection. This is another one of the 📝 rare cases where TH01 demonstrates good use of PC-98 hardware, as the 魔界へ and 地獄へ strings don't need to be reblitted during the selection process, only the Orb "cursor" does.

Then, why does this still not count as good-code? When changing palette colors, you kinda need to be aware of everything else that can possibly be on screen, which colors are used there, and which aren't and can therefore be used for such an effect without affecting other sprites. In this case, well… hover over the image below, and notice how Reimu's hair and the bomb sprites in the HUD light up when Makai is selected:

This push did end on a high note though, with the generic, non-SinGyoku version of the defeat animation being an easily parametrizable copy. And that's how you decompile another 2.58% of TH01 in just slightly over three pushes.

Now, we're not only ready to decompile Sariel, but also Kikuri, Elis, and SinGyoku without needing any more detours into non-boss code. Thanks to the current TH01 funding subscriptions, I can plan to cover most, if not all, of Sariel in a single push series, but the currently 3 pending pushes probably won't suffice for Sariel's 8.10% of all remaining code in TH01. We've got quite a lot of not specifically TH01-related funds in the backlog to pass the time though.

Due to recent developments, it actually makes quite a lot of sense to take a break from TH01: spaztron64 has managed what every Touhou download site so far has failed to do: Bundling all 5 game onto a single .HDI together with pre-configured PC-98 emulators and a nice boot menu, and hosting the resulting package on a proper website. While this first release is already quite good (and much better than my attempt from 2014), there is still a bit of room for improvement to be gained from specific ReC98 research. Next up, therefore:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0135, P0136
a6eed55...252c13d, 252c13d...07bfcf2
💰 Funded by:
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ kaja+ menu- micro-optimization+ bug+ tcc+

Alright, no more big code maintenance tasks that absolutely need to be done right now. Time to really focus on parts 6 and 7 of repaying technical debt, right? Except that we don't get to speed up just yet, as TH05's barely decompilable PMD file loading function is rather… complicated.
Fun fact: Whenever I see an unusual sequence of x86 instructions in PC-98 Touhou, I first consult the disassembly of Wolfenstein 3D. That game was originally compiled with the quite similar Borland C++ 3.0, so it's quite helpful to compare its ASM to the officially released source code. If I find the instructions in question, they mostly come from that game's ASM code, leading to the amusing realization that "even John Carmack was unable to get these instructions out of this compiler" :onricdennat: This time though, Wolfenstein 3D did point me to Borland's intrinsics for common C functions like memcpy() and strchr(), available via #pragma intrinsic. Bu~t those unfortunately still generate worse code than what ZUN micro-optimized here. Commenting how these sequences of instructions should look in C is unfortunately all I could do here.
The conditional branches in this function did compile quite nicely though, clarifying the control flow, and clearly exposing a ZUN bug: TH05's snd_load() will hang in an infinite loop when trying to load a non-existing -86 BGM file (with a .M2 extension) if the corresponding -26 BGM file (with a .M extension) doesn't exist either.

Unsurprisingly, the PMD channel monitoring code in TH05's Music Room remains undecompilable outside the two most "high-level" initialization and rendering functions. And it's not because there's data in the middle of the code segment – that would have actually been possible with some #pragmas to ensure that the data and code segments have the same name. As soon as the SI and DI registers are referenced anywhere, Turbo C++ insists on emitting prolog code to save these on the stack at the beginning of the function, and epilog code to restore them from there before returning. Found that out in September 2019, and confirmed that there's no way around it. All the small helper functions here are quite simply too optimized, throwing away any concern for such safety measures. 🤷
Oh well, the two functions that were decompilable at least indicate that I do try.

Within that same 6th push though, we've finally reached the one function in TH05 that was blocking further progress in TH04, allowing that game to finally catch up with the others in terms of separated translation units. Feels good to finally delete more of those .ASM files we've decompiled a while ago… finally!

But since that was just getting started, the most satisfying development in both of these pushes actually came from some more experiments with macros and inline functions for near-ASM code. By adding "unused" dummy parameters for all relevant registers, the exact input registers are made more explicit, which might help future port authors who then maybe wouldn't have to look them up in an x86 instruction reference quite as often. At its best, this even allows us to declare certain functions with the __fastcall convention and express their parameter lists as regular C, with no additional pseudo-registers or macros required.
As for output registers, Turbo C++'s code generation turns out to be even more amazing than previously thought when it comes to returning pseudo-registers from inline functions. A nice example for how this can improve readability can be found in this piece of TH02 code for polling the PC-98 keyboard state using a BIOS interrupt:

inline uint8_t keygroup_sense(uint8_t group) {
	_AL = group;
	_AH = 0x04;
	// This turns the output register of this BIOS call into the return value
	// of this function. Surprisingly enough, this does *not* naively generate
	// the `MOV AL, AH` instruction you might expect here!
	return _AH;

void input_sense(void)
	// As a result, this assignment becomes `_AH = _AH`, which Turbo C++
	// never emits as such, giving us only the three instructions we need.
	_AH = keygroup_sense(8);

	// Whereas this one gives us the one additional `MOV BH, AH` instruction
	// we'd expect, and nothing more.
	_BH = keygroup_sense(7);

	// And now it's obvious what both of these registers contain, from just
	// the assignments above.
	if(_BH & K7_ARROW_UP || _AH & K8_NUM_8) {
		key_det |= INPUT_UP;
	// […]

I love it. No inline assembly, as close to idiomatic C code as something like this is going to get, yet still compiling into the minimum possible number of x86 instructions on even a 1994 compiler. This is how I keep this project interesting for myself during chores like these. :tannedcirno: We might have even reached peak inline already?

And that's 65% of technical debt in the SHARED segment repaid so far. Next up: Two more of these, which might already complete that segment? Finally!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0124, P0125
72dfa09...056b1c7, 056b1c7...f6a3246
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ pc98+ menu- waste+ master.lib+ waste+

Turns out that TH04's player selection menu is exactly three times as complicated as TH05's. Two screens for character and shot type rather than one, and a way more intricate implementation for saving and restoring the background behind the raised top and left edges of a character picture when moving the cursor between Reimu and Marisa. TH04 decides to backup precisely only the two 256×8 (top) and 8×244 (left) strips behind the edges, indicated in red in the picture below.

These take up just 4 KB of heap memory… but require custom blitting functions, and expanding this explicitly hardcoded approach to TH05's 4 characters would have been pretty annoying. So, rather than, uh, not explicitly hardcoding it all, ZUN decided to just be lazy with the backup area in TH05, saving the entire 640×400 screen, and thus spending 128 KB of heap memory on this rather simple selection shadow effect. :zunpet:

So, this really wasn't something to quickly get done during the first half of a push, even after already having done TH05's equivalent of this menu. But since life is very busy right now, I also used the occasion to start addressing another code organization annoyance: master.lib's single master.h header file.

So, time to start a new master.hpp header that would contain just the declarations from master.h that PC-98 Touhou actually needs, plus some semantic (yes, semantic) sugar. Comparing just the old master.h to just the new master.hpp after roughly 60% of the transition has been completed, we get median build times of 319 ms for master.h, and 144 ms for master.hpp on my (admittedly rather slow) DOSBox setup. Nice!
As of this push, ReC98 consists of 107 translation units that have to be compiled with Turbo C++ 4.0J. Fully rebuilding all of these currently takes roughly 37.5 seconds in DOSBox. After the transition to master.hpp is done, we could therefore shave some 10 to 15 seconds off this time, simply by switching header files. And that's just the beginning, as this will also pave the way for further #include optimizations. Life in this codebase will be great!

Unfortunately, there wasn't enough time to repay some of the actual technical debt I was looking forward to, after all of this. Oh well, at least we now also have nice identifiers for the three different boldface options that are used when rendering text to VRAM, after procrastinating that issue for almost 11 months. Next up, assuming the existing subscriptions: More ridiculous decompilations of things that definitely weren't originally written in C, and a big blocker in TH03's MAIN.EXE.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ menu- file-format+ hidden-content+ micro-optimization+

So, TH05 OP.EXE. The first half of this push started out nicely, with an easy decompilation of the entire player character selection menu. Typical ZUN quality, with not much to say about it. While the overall function structure is identical to its TH04 counterpart, the two games only really share small snippets inside these functions, and do need to be RE'd separately.

The high score viewing (not registration) menu would have been next. Unfortunately, it calls one of the GENSOU.SCR loading functions… which are all a complete mess that still needed to be sorted out first. 5 distinct functions in 6 binaries, and of course TH05 also micro-optimized its MAIN.EXE version to directly use the DOS INT 21h file loading API instead of master.lib's wrappers. Could have all been avoided with a single method on the score data structure, taking a player character ID and a difficulty level as parameters…

So, no score menu in this push then. Looking at the other end of the ASM code though, we find the starting functions for the main game, the Extra Stage, and the demo replays, which did fit perfectly to round out this push.

Which is where we find an easter egg! 🥚 The hidden 5th demo replay, DEMO5.REC, is actually a full Extra Stage clear with Mima, with 3 bombs and 1 death, obviously recorded by ZUN himself. To watch it without modding the game, unlock the Extra Stage with all 4 characters, then hold both the ⬅️ left and ➡️ right arrow keys in the main menu while waiting for the usual demo replay. I can't possibly be the first one to discover this, but I couldn't find any other mention of it.
Edit (2021-03-15): ZUN did in fact document this replay in Section 6 of TH05's OMAKE.TXT, along with the exact method to view it. Thanks to Popfan for the discovery!

Here's a recording of the whole replay:

Note how the boss dialogue is skipped. MAIN.EXE actually contains no less than 6 if() branches just to distinguish this overly long replay from the regular ones.

I'd really like to do the TH04 and TH05 main menus in parallel, since we can expect a bit more shared code after all the initial differences. Therefore, I'm going to put the next "anything" push towards covering the TH04 version of those functions. Next up though, it's back to TH01, with more redundant image format code…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0115, P0116
967bb8b...e5328a3, e5328a3...03048c3
💰 Funded by:
Lmocinemod, Blue Bolt, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ th04+ th05+ file-format+ cutscene+ blitting+ menu-

Finally, after a long while, we've got two pushes with barely anything to talk about! Continuing the road towards 100% PI for TH05, these were exactly the two pushes that TH05 MAINE.EXE PI was estimated to additionally cost, relative to TH04's. Consequently, they mostly went to TH05's unique data structures in the ending cutscenes, the score name registration menu, and the staff roll.

A unique feature in there is TH05's support for automatic text color changes in its ending scripts, based on the first full-width Shift-JIS codepoint in a line. The \c=codepoint,color commands at the top of the _ED??.TXT set up exactly this codepoint→color mapping. As far as I can tell, TH05 is the only Touhou game with a feature like this – even the Windows Touhou games went back to manually spelling out each color change.

The orb particles in TH05's staff roll also try to be a bit unique by using 32-bit X and Y subpixel variables for their current position. With still just 4 fractional bits, I can't really tell yet whether the extended range was actually necessary. Maybe due to how the "camera scrolling" through "space" was implemented? All other entities were pretty much the usual fare, though.
12.4, 4.4, and now a 28.4 fixed-point format… yup, 📝 C++ templates were definitely the right choice.

At the end of its staff roll, TH05 not only displays the usual performance verdict, but then scrolls in the scores at the end of each stage before switching to the high score menu. The simplest way to smoothly scroll between two full screens on a PC-98 involves a separate bitmap… which is exactly what TH05 does here, reserving 28,160 bytes of its global data segment for just one overly large monochrome 320×704 bitmap where both the screens are rendered to. That's… one benefit of splitting your game into multiple executables, I guess? :tannedcirno:
Not sure if it's common knowledge that you can actually scroll back and forth between the two screens with the Up and Down keys before moving to the score menu. I surely didn't know that before. But it makes sense – might as well get the most out of that memory.

The necessary groundwork for all of this may have actually made TH04's (yes, TH04's) MAINE.EXE technically position-independent. Didn't quite reach the same goal for TH05's – but what we did reach is ⅔ of all PC-98 Touhou code now being position-independent! Next up: Celebrating even more milestones, as -Tom- is about to finish development on his TH05 MAIN.EXE PI demo…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0092, P0093, P0094
29c5a73...4403308, 4403308...0e73029, 0e73029...57a8487
💰 Funded by:
Yanga, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ menu- score+ jank+ waste+

Three pushes to decompile the TH01 high score menu… because it's completely terrible, and needlessly complicated in pretty much every aspect:

In the end, I just gave up with my usual redundancy reduction efforts for this one. Anyone wanting to change TH01's high score name entering code would be better off just rewriting the entire thing properly.

And that's all of the shared code in TH01! Both OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE are now only missing the actual main menu and ending code, respectively. Next up, though: The long awaited TH01 PI push. Which will not only deliver 100% PI for OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE, but also probably quite some gains in REIIDEN.EXE. With now over 30% of the game decompiled, it's about time we get to look at some gameplay code!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0090, P0091
90252cc...07dab29, 07dab29...29c5a73
💰 Funded by:
Yanga, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ file-format+ bomb+ input+ menu- bug+

Back to TH01, and its high score menu… oh, wait, that one will eventually involve keyboard input. And thanks to the generous TH01 funding situation, there's really no reason not to cover that right now. After all, TH01 is the last game where input still hadn't been RE'd.
But first, let's also cover that one unused blitting function, together with REIIDEN.CFG loading and saving, which are in front of the input function in OP.EXE… (By now, we all know about the hidden start bomb configuration, right?)

Unsurprisingly, the earliest game also implements input in the messiest way, with a different function for each of the three executables. "Because they all react differently to keyboard inputs :zunpet:", apparently? OP.EXE even has two functions for it, one for the START / CONTINUE / OPTION / QUIT main menu, and one for both Option and Music Test menus, both of which directly perform the ring arithmetic on the menu cursor variable. A consistent separation of keyboard polling from input processing apparently wasn't all too obvious of a thought, since it's only truly done from TH02 on.

This lack of proper architecture becomes actually hilarious once you notice that it did in fact facilitate a recursion bug! :godzun: In case you've been living under a rock for the past 8 years, TH01 shipped with debugging features, which you can enter by running the game via game d from the DOS prompt. These features include a memory info screen, shown when pressing PgUp, implemented as one blocking function (test_mem()) called directly in response to the pressed key inside the polling function. test_mem() only returns once that screen is left by pressing PgDown. And in order to poll input… it directly calls back into the same polling function that called it in the first place, after a 3-frame delay.

Which means that this screen is actually re-entered for every 3 frames that the PgUp key is being held. And yes, you can, of course, also crash the system via a stack overflow this way by holding down PgUp for a few seconds, if that's your thing.
Edit (2020-09-17): Here's a video from spaztron64, showing off this exact stack overflow crash while running under the VEM486 memory manager, which displays additional information about these sorts of crashes:

What makes this even funnier is that the code actually tracks the last state of every polled key, to prevent exactly that sort of bug. But the copy-pasted assignment of the last input state is only done after test_mem() already returned, making it effectively pointless for PgUp. It does work as intended for PgDown… and that's why you have to actually press and release this key once for every call to test_mem() in order to actually get back into the game. Even though a single call to PgDown will already show the game screen again.

In maybe more relevant news though, this function also came with what can be considered the first piece of actual gameplay logic! Bombing via double-tapping the Z and X keys is also handled here, and now we know that both keys simply have to be tapped twice within a window of 20 frames. They are tracked independently from each other, so you don't necessarily have to press them simultaneously.
In debug mode, the bomb count tracks precisely this window of time. That's why it only resets back to 0 when pressing Z or X if it's ≥20.

Sure, TH01's code is expectedly terrible and messy. But compared to the micro-optimizations of TH04 and TH05, it's an absolute joy to work on, and opening all these ZUN bug loot boxes is just the icing on the cake. Looking forward to more of the high score menu in the next pushes!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ menu- position-independence+

🎉 TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE are now fully position-independent! 🎉

What does this mean?

You can now add any data or code to the main menus of the two games, by simply editing the ReC98 source, writing your mod in ASM or C/C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely reverse-engineered yet, let alone decompiled. Pretty much all of that is still ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now.

Since this push was otherwise pretty unremarkable, I made a video demonstrating a few basic things you can do with this:

Now, what to do for the last outstanding Touhou Patch Center push? Bullets, or resident structures? :thonk: