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Showing all posts tagged performance-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0212, P0213
Commits:
d398a94...363fd54, 363fd54...158a91e
💰 Funded by:
LeyDud, Lmocinemod, GhostRiderCog, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ score+ pc98+ performance- unused+ cutscene+ debug+

Wow, it's been 3 days and I'm already back with an unexpectedly long post about TH01's bonus point screens? 3 days used to take much longer in my previous projects…

Before I talk about graphics for the rest of this post, let's start with the exact calculations for both bonuses. Touhou Wiki already got these right, but it still makes sense to provide them here, in a format that allows you to cross-reference them with the source code more easily. For the card-flipping stage bonus:

Time min((Stage timer * 3), 6553)
Continuous min((Highest card combo * 100), 6553)
Bomb&Player min(((Lives * 200) + (Bombs * 100)), 6553)
STAGE min(((Stage number - 1) * 200), 6553)
BONUS Point Sum of all above values * 10

The boss stage bonus is calculated from the exact same metrics, despite half of them being labeled differently. The only actual differences are in the higher multipliers and in the cap for the stage number bonus. Why remove it if raising it high enough also effectively disables it? :tannedcirno:

Time min((Stage timer * 5), 6553)
Continuous min((Highest card combo * 200), 6553)
MIKOsan min(((Lives * 500) + (Bombs * 200)), 6553)
Clear min((Stage number * 1000), 65530)
TOTLE Sum of all above values * 10

The transition between the gameplay and TOTLE screens is one of the more impressive effects showcased in this game, especially due to how wavy it often tends to look. Aside from the palette interpolation (which is, by the way, the first time ZUN wrote a correct interpolation algorithm between two 4-bit palettes), the core of the effect is quite simple. With the TOTLE image blitted to VRAM page 1:

So it's really more like two interlaced shift effects with opposite directions, starting on different scanlines. No trigonometry involved at all.

Horizontally scrolling pixels on a single VRAM page remains one of the few 📝 appropriate uses of the EGC in a fullscreen 640×400 PC-98 game, regardless of the copied block size. The few inter-page copies in this effect are also reasonable: With 8 new lines starting on each effect frame, up to (8 × 20) = 160 lines are transferred at any given time, resulting in a maximum of (160 × 2 × 2) = 640 VRAM page switches per frame for the newly transferred pixels. Not that frame rate matters in this situation to begin with though, as the game is doing nothing else while playing this effect.
What does sort of matter: Why 32 pixels every 2 frames, instead of 16 pixels on every frame? There's no performance difference between doing one half of the work in one frame, or two halves of the work in two frames. It's not like the overhead of another loop has a serious impact here, especially with the PC-98 VRAM being said to have rather high latencies. 32 pixels over 2 frames is also harder to code, so ZUN must have done it on purpose. Guess he really wanted to go for that 📽 cinematic 30 FPS look 📽 here… :zunpet:

Removing the palette interpolation and transitioning from a black screen to CLEAR3.GRP makes it a lot clearer how the effect works.

Once all the metrics have been calculated, ZUN animates each value with a rather fancy left-to-right typing effect. As 16×16 images that use a single bright-red color, these numbers would be perfect candidates for gaiji… except that ZUN wanted to render them at the more natural Y positions of the labels inside CLEAR3.GRP that are far from aligned to the 8×16 text RAM grid. Not having been in the mood for hardcoding another set of monochrome sprites as C arrays that day, ZUN made the still reasonable choice of storing the image data for these numbers in the single-color .GRC form– yeah, no, of course he once again chose the .PTN hammer, and its 📝 16×16 "quarter" wrapper functions around nominal 32×32 sprites.

.PTN sprite for the TOTLE metric digits of 0, 1, 2, and 3.PTN sprite for the TOTLE metric digits of 4, 5, 6, and 7 .PTN sprite for the TOTLE metric digits of 8 and 9, filled with two blank quarters
The three 32×32 TOTLE metric digit sprites inside NUMB.PTN.

Why do I bring up such a detail? What's actually going on there is that ZUN loops through and blits each digit from 0 to 9, and then continues the loop with "digit" numbers from 10 to 19, stopping before the number whose ones digit equals the one that should stay on screen. No problem with that in theory, and the .PTN sprite selection is correct… but the .PTN quarter selection isn't, as ZUN wrote (digit % 4) instead of the correct ((digit % 10) % 4). :onricdennat: Since .PTN quarters are indexed in a row-major way, the 10-19 part of the loop thus ends up blitting 23016745(nothing):

This footage was slowed down to show one sprite blitting operation per frame. The actual game waits a hardcoded 4 milliseconds between each sprite, so even theoretically, you would only see roughly every 4th digit. And yes, we can also observe the empty quarter here, only blitted if one of the digits is a 9.

Seriously though? If the deadline is looming and you've got to rush some part of your game, a standalone screen that doesn't affect anything is the best place to pick. At 4 milliseconds per digit, the animation goes by so fast that this quirk might even add to its perceived fanciness. It's exactly the reason why I've always been rather careful with labeling such quirks as "bugs". And in the end, the code does perform one more blitting call after the loop to make sure that the correct digit remains on screen.


The remaining ¾ of the second push went towards transferring the final data definitions from ASM to C land. Most of the details there paint a rather depressing picture about ZUN's original code layout and the bloat that came with it, but it did end on a real highlight. There was some unused data between ZUN's non-master.lib VSync and text RAM code that I just moved away in September 2015 without taking a closer look at it. Those bytes kind of look like another hardcoded 1bpp image though… wait, what?!

An unused mouse cursor sprite found in all of TH01's binaries

Lovely! With no mouse-related code left in the game otherwise, this cursor sprite provides some great fuel for wild fan theories about TH01's development history:

  1. Could ZUN have 📝 stolen the basic PC-98 VSync or text RAM function code from a source that also implemented mouse support?
  2. Did he have a mouse-controlled level editor during development? It's highly likely that he had something, given all the 📝 bit twiddling seen in the STAGE?.DAT format.
  3. Or was this game actually meant to have mouse-controllable portions at some point during development? Even if it would have just been the menus.

… Actually, you know what, with all shared data moved to C land, I might as well finish FUUIN.EXE right now. The last secret hidden in its main() function: Just like GAME.BAT supports launching the game in a debug mode from the DOS command line, FUUIN.EXE can directly launch one of the game's endings. As long as the MDRV2 driver is installed, you can enter fuuin t1 for the 魔界/Makai Good Ending, or fuuin t for 地獄/Jigoku Good Ending.
Unfortunately, the command-line parameter can only control the route. Choosing between a Good or Bad Ending is still done exclusively through TH01's resident structure, and the continues_per_scene array in particular. But if you pre-allocate that structure somehow and set one of the members to a nonzero value, it would work. Trainers, anyone?

Alright, gotta get back to the code if I want to have any chance of finishing this game before the 15th… Next up: The final 17 functions in REIIDEN.EXE that tie everything together and add some more debug features on top.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0205, P0206
Commits:
3259190...327730f, 327730f...454c105
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay+ boss+ mima-th01+ danmaku-pattern+ rng+ performance- palette+ glitch+ jank+ konngara+ meta+

Oh look, it's another rather short and straightforward boss with a rather small number of bugs and quirks. Yup, contrary to the character's popularity, Mima's premiere is really not all that special in terms of code, and continues the trend established with 📝 Kikuri and 📝 SinGyoku. I've already covered 📝 the initial sprite-related bugs last November, so this post focuses on the main code of the fight itself. The overview:


And there aren't even any weird hitboxes this time. What is maybe special about Mima, however, is how there's something to cover about all of her patterns. Since this is TH01, it's won't surprise anyone that the rotating square patterns are one giant copy-pasta of unblitting, updating, and rendering code. At least ZUN placed the core polar→Cartesian transformation in a separate function for creating regular polygons with an arbitrary number of sides, which might hint toward some more varied shapes having been planned at one point?
5 of the 6 patterns even follow the exact same steps during square update frames:

  1. Calculate square corner coordinates
  2. Unblit the square
  3. Update the square angle and radius
  4. Use the square corner coordinates for spawning pellets or missiles
  5. Recalculate square corner coordinates
  6. Render the square

Notice something? Bullets are spawned before the corner coordinates are updated. That's why their initial positions seem to be a bit off – they are spawned exactly in the corners of the square, it's just that it's the square from 8 frames ago. :tannedcirno:

Mima's first pattern on Normal difficulty.

Once ZUN reached the final laser pattern though, he must have noticed that there's something wrong there… or maybe he just wanted to fire those lasers independently from the square unblit/update/render timer for a change. Spending an additional 16 bytes of the data segment for conveniently remembering the square corner coordinates across frames was definitely a decent investment.

Mima's laser pattern on Lunatic difficulty, now with correct laser spawn positions. If this pattern reminds you of the game crashing immediately when defeating Mima, 📝 check out the Elis blog post for the details behind this bug, and grab the bugfix patch from there.

When Mima isn't shooting bullets from the corners of a square or hopping across the playfield, she's raising flame pillars from the bottom of the playfield within very specifically calculated random ranges… which are then rendered at byte-aligned VRAM positions, while collision detection still uses their actual pixel position. Since I don't want to sound like a broken record all too much, I'll just direct you to 📝 Kikuri, where we've seen the exact same issue with the teardrop ripple sprites. The conclusions are identical as well.

Mima's flame pillar pattern. This video was recorded on a particularly unlucky seed that resulted in great disparities between a pillar's internal X coordinate and its byte-aligned on-screen appearance, leading to lots of right-shifted hitboxes.
Also note how the change from the meteor animation to the three-arm 🚫 casting sprite doesn't unblit the meteor, and leaves that job to any sprite that happens to fly over those pixels.

However, I'd say that the saddest part about this pattern is how choppy it is, with the circle/pillar entities updating and rendering at a meager 7 FPS. Why go that low on purpose when you can just make the game render ✨ smoothly ✨ instead?

So smooth it's almost uncanny.

The reason quickly becomes obvious: With TH01's lack of optimization, going for the full 56.4 FPS would have significantly slowed down the game on its intended 33 MHz CPUs, requiring more than cheap surface-level ASM optimization for a stable frame rate. That might very well have been ZUN's reason for only ever rendering one circle per frame to VRAM, and designing the pattern with these time offsets in mind. It's always been typical for PC-98 developers to target the lowest-spec models that could possibly still run a game, and implementing dynamic frame rates into such an engine-less game is nothing I would wish on anybody. And it's not like TH01 is particularly unique in its choppiness anyway; low frame rates are actually a rather typical part of the PC-98 game aesthetic.


The final piece of weirdness in this fight can be found in phase 1's hop pattern, and specifically its palette manipulation. Just from looking at the pattern code itself, each of the 4 hops is supposed to darken the hardware palette by subtracting #444 from every color. At the last hop, every color should have therefore been reduced to a pitch-black #000, leaving the player completely blind to the movement of the chasing pellets for 30 frames and making the pattern quite ghostly indeed. However, that's not what we see in the actual game:

Nothing in the pattern's code would cause the hardware palette to get brighter before the end of the pattern, and yet…
The expected version doesn't look all too unfair, even on Lunatic… well, at least at the default rank pellet speed shown in this video. At maximum pellet speed, it is in fact rather brutal.

Looking at the frame counter, it appears that something outside the pattern resets the palette every 40 frames. The only known constant with a value of 40 would be the invincibility frames after hitting a boss with the Orb, but we're not hitting Mima here… :thonk:
But as it turns out, that's exactly where the palette reset comes from: The hop animation darkens the hardware palette directly, while the 📝 infamous 12-parameter boss collision handler function unconditionally resets the hardware palette to the "default boss palette" every 40 frames, regardless of whether the boss was hit or not. I'd classify this as a bug: That function has no business doing periodic hardware palette resets outside the invincibility flash effect, and it completely defies common sense that it does.

That explains one unexpected palette change, but could this function possibly also explain the other infamous one, namely, the temporary green discoloration in the Konngara fight? That glitch comes down to how the game actually uses two global "default" palettes: a default boss palette for undoing the invincibility flash effect, and a default stage palette for returning the colors back to normal at the end of the bomb animation or when leaving the Pause menu. And sure enough, the stage palette is the one with the green color, while the boss palette contains the intended colors used throughout the fight. Sending the latter palette to the graphics chip every 40 frames is what corrects the discoloration, which would otherwise be permanent.

The green color comes from BOSS7_D1.GRP, the scrolling background of the entrance animation. That's what turns this into a clear bug: The stage palette is only set a single time in the entire fight, at the beginning of the entrance animation, to the palette of this image. Apart from consistency reasons, it doesn't even make sense to set the stage palette there, as you can't enter the Pause menu or bomb during a blocking animation function.
And just 3 lines of code later, ZUN loads BOSS8_A1.GRP, the main background image of the fight. Moving the stage palette assignment there would have easily prevented the discoloration.

But yeah, as you can tell, palette manipulation is complete jank in this game. Why differentiate between a stage and a boss palette to begin with? The blocking Pause menu function could have easily copied the original palette to a local variable before darkening it, and then restored it after closing the menu. It's not so easy for bombs as the intended palette could change between the start and end of the animation, but the code could have still been simplified a lot if there was just one global "default palette" variable instead of two. Heck, even the other bosses who manipulate their palettes correctly only do so because they manually synchronize the two after every change. The proper defense against bugs that result from wild mutation of global state is to get rid of global state, and not to put up safety nets hidden in the middle of existing effect code.

The easiest way of reproducing the green discoloration bug in the TH01 Konngara fight, timed to show the maximum amount of time the discoloration can possibly last.

In any case, that's Mima done! 7th PC-98 Touhou boss fully decompiled, 24 bosses remaining, and 59 functions left in all of TH01.


In other thrilling news, my call for secondary funding priorities in new TH01 contributions has given us three different priorities so far. This raises an interesting question though: Which of these contributions should I now put towards TH01 immediately, and which ones should I leave in the backlog for the time being? Since I've never liked deciding on priorities, let's turn this into a popularity contest instead: The contributions with the least popular secondary priorities will go towards TH01 first, giving the most popular priorities a higher chance to still be left over after TH01 is done. As of this delivery, we'd have the following popularity order:

  1. TH05 (1.67 pushes), from T0182
  2. Seihou (1 push), from T0184
  3. TH03 (0.67 pushes), from T0146

Which means that T0146 will be consumed for TH01 next, followed by T0184 and then T0182. I only assign transactions immediately before a delivery though, so you all still have the chance to change up these priorities before the next one.

Next up: The final boss of TH01 decompilation, YuugenMagan… if the current or newly incoming TH01 funds happen to be enough to cover the entire fight. If they don't turn out to be, I will have to pass the time with some Seihou work instead, missing the TH01 anniversary deadline as a result. Edit (2022-07-18): Thanks to Yanga for securing the funding for YuugenMagan after all! That fight will feature slightly more than half of all remaining code in TH01's REIIDEN.EXE and the single biggest function in all of PC-98 Touhou, let's go!

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0198, P0199, P0200
Commits:
48db0b7...440637e, 440637e...5af2048, 5af2048...67e46b5
💰 Funded by:
Ember2528, Lmocinemod, Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ gameplay+ boss+ kikuri+ blitting+ glitch+ danmaku-pattern+ cutscene+ pc98+ performance- tcc+

What's this? A simple, straightforward, easy-to-decompile TH01 boss with just a few minor quirks and only two rendering-related ZUN bugs? Yup, 2½ pushes, and Kikuri was done. Let's get right into the overview:

So yeah, there's your new timeout challenge. :godzun:


The few issues in this fight all relate to hitboxes, starting with the main one of Kikuri against the Orb. The coordinates in the code clearly describe a hitbox in the upper center of the disc, but then ZUN wrote a < sign instead of a > sign, resulting in an in-game hitbox that's not quite where it was intended to be…

Kikuri's actual hitbox. Since the Orb sprite doesn't change its shape, we can visualize the hitbox in a pixel-perfect way here. The Orb must be completely within the red area for a hit to be registered.
TODO TH01 Kikuri's intended hitboxTH01 Kikuri's actual hitbox

Much worse, however, are the teardrop ripples. It already starts with their rendering routine, which places the sprites from TAMAYEN.PTN at byte-aligned VRAM positions in the ultimate piece of if(…) {…} else if(…) {…} else if(…) {…} meme code. Rather than tracking the position of each of the five ripple sprites, ZUN suddenly went purely functional and manually hardcoded the exact rendering and collision detection calls for each frame of the animation, based on nothing but its total frame counter. :zunpet:
Each of the (up to) 5 columns is also unblitted and blitted individually before moving to the next column, starting at the center and then symmetrically moving out to the left and right edges. This wouldn't be a problem if ZUN's EGC-powered unblitting function didn't word-align its X coordinates to a 16×1 grid. If the ripple sprites happen to start at an odd VRAM byte position, their unblitting coordinates get rounded both down and up to the nearest 16 pixels, thus touching the adjacent 8 pixels of the previously blitted columns and leaving the well-known black vertical bars in their place. :tannedcirno:

OK, so where's the hitbox issue here? If you just look at the raw calculation, it's a slightly confusingly expressed, but perfectly logical 17 pixels. But this is where byte-aligned blitting has a direct effect on gameplay: These ripples can be spawned at any arbitrary, non-byte-aligned VRAM position, and collisions are calculated relative to this internal position. Therefore, the actual hitbox is shifted up to 7 pixels to the right, compared to where you would expect it from a ripple sprite's on-screen position:

Due to the deterministic nature of this part of the fight, it's always 5 pixels for this first set of ripples. These visualizations are obviously not pixel-perfect due to the different potential shapes of Reimu's sprite, so they instead relate to her 32×32 bounding box, which needs to be entirely inside the red area.

We've previously seen the same issue with the 📝 shot hitbox of Elis' bat form, where pixel-perfect collision detection against a byte-aligned sprite was merely a sidenote compared to the more serious X=Y coordinate bug. So why do I elevate it to bug status here? Because it directly affects dodging: Reimu's regular movement speed is 4 pixels per frame, and with the internal position of an on-screen ripple sprite varying by up to 7 pixels, any micrododging (or "grazing") attempt turns into a coin flip. It's sort of mitigated by the fact that Reimu is also only ever rendered at byte-aligned VRAM positions, but I wouldn't say that these two bugs cancel out each other.
Oh well, another set of rendering issues to be fixed in the hypothetical Anniversary Edition – obviously, the hitboxes should remain unchanged. Until then, you can always memorize the exact internal positions. The sequence of teardrop spawn points is completely deterministic and only controlled by the fixed per-difficulty spawn interval.


Aside from more minor coordinate inaccuracies, there's not much of interest in the rest of the pattern code. In another parallel to Elis though, the first soul pattern in phase 4 is aimed on every difficulty except Lunatic, where the pellets are once again statically fired downwards. This time, however, the pattern's difficulty is much more appropriately distributed across the four levels, with the simultaneous spinning circle pellets adding a constant aimed component to every difficulty level.

Kikuri's phase 4 patterns, on every difficulty.


That brings us to 5 fully decompiled PC-98 Touhou bosses, with 26 remaining… and another ½ of a push going to the cutscene code in FUUIN.EXE.
You wouldn't expect something as mundane as the boss slideshow code to contain anything interesting, but there is in fact a slight bit of speculation fuel there. The text typing functions take explicit string lengths, which precisely match the corresponding strings… for the most part. For the "Gatekeeper 'SinGyoku'" string though, ZUN passed 23 characters, not 22. Could that have been the "h" from the Hepburn romanization of 神玉?!
Also, come on, if this text is already blitted to VRAM for no reason, you could have gone for perfect centering at unaligned byte positions; the rendering function would have perfectly supported it. Instead, the X coordinates are still rounded up to the nearest byte.

The hardcoded ending cutscene functions should be even less interesting – don't they just show a bunch of images followed by frame delays? Until they don't, and we reach the 地獄/Jigoku Bad Ending with its special shake/"boom" effect, and this picture:

Picture #2 from ED2A.GRP.

Which is rendered by the following code:

for(int i = 0; i <= boom_duration; i++) { // (yes, off-by-one)
	if((i & 3) == 0) {
		graph_scrollup(8);
	} else {
		graph_scrollup(0);
	}

	end_pic_show(1); // ← different picture is rendered
	frame_delay(2);  // ← blocks until 2 VSync interrupts have occurred

	if(i & 1) {
		end_pic_show(2); // ← picture above is rendered
	} else {
		end_pic_show(1);
	}
}

Notice something? You should never see this picture because it's immediately overwritten before the frame is supposed to end. And yet it's clearly flickering up for about one frame with common emulation settings as well as on my real PC-9821 Nw133, clocked at 133 MHz. master.lib's graph_scrollup() doesn't block until VSync either, and removing these calls doesn't change anything about the blitted images. end_pic_show() uses the EGC to blit the given 320×200 quarter of VRAM from page 1 to the visible page 0, so the bottleneck shouldn't be there either…

…or should it? After setting it up via a few I/O port writes, the common method of EGC-powered blitting works like this:

  1. Read 16 bits from the source VRAM position on any single bitplane. This fills the EGC's 4 16-bit tile registers with the VRAM contents at that specific position on every bitplane. You do not care about the value the CPU returns from the read – in optimized code, you would make sure to just read into a register to avoid useless additional stores into local variables.
  2. Write any 16 bits to the target VRAM position on any single bitplane. This copies the contents of the EGC's tile registers to that specific position on every bitplane.

To transfer pixels from one VRAM page to another, you insert an additional write to I/O port 0xA6 before 1) and 2) to set your source and destination page… and that's where we find the bottleneck. Taking a look at the i486 CPU and its cycle counts, a single one of these page switches costs 17 cycles – 1 for MOVing the page number into AL, and 16 for the OUT instruction itself. Therefore, the 8,000 page switches required for EGC-copying a 320×200-pixel image require 136,000 cycles in total.

And that's the optimal case of using only those two instructions. 📝 As I implied last time, TH01 uses a function call for VRAM page switches, complete with creating and destroying a useless stack frame and unnecessarily updating a global variable in main memory. I tried optimizing ZUN's code by throwing out unnecessary code and using 📝 pseudo-registers to generate probably optimal assembly code, and that did speed up the blitting to almost exactly 50% of the original version's run time. However, it did little about the flickering itself. Here's a comparison of the first loop with boom_duration = 16, recorded in DOSBox-X with cputype=auto and cycles=max, and with i overlaid using the text chip. Caution, flashing lights:

The original animation, completing in 50 frames instead of the expected 34, thanks to slow blitting. Combined with the lack of double-buffering, this results in noticeable tearing as the screen refreshes while blitting is still in progress. (Note how the background of the ドカーン image is shifted 1 pixel to the left compared to pic #1.)
This optimized version completes in the expected 34 frames. No tearing happens to be visible in this recording, but the ドカーン image is still visible on every second loop iteration. (Note how the background of the ドカーン image is shifted 1 pixel to the left compared to pic #1.)

I pushed the optimized code to the th01_end_pic_optimize branch, to also serve as an example of how to get close to optimal code out of Turbo C++ 4.0J without writing a single ASM instruction.
And if you really want to use the EGC for this, that's the best you can do. It really sucks that it merely expanded the GRCG's 4×8-bit tile register to 4×16 bits. With 32 bits, ≥386 CPUs could have taken advantage of their wider registers and instructions to double the blitting performance. Instead, we now know the reason why 📝 Promisence Soft's EGC-powered sprite driver that ZUN later stole for TH03 is called SPRITE16 and not SPRITE32. What a massive disappointment.

But what's perhaps a bigger surprise: Blitting planar images from main memory is much faster than EGC-powered inter-page VRAM copies, despite the required manual access to all 4 bitplanes. In fact, the blitting functions for the .CDG/.CD2 format, used from TH03 onwards, would later demonstrate the optimal method of using REP MOVSD for blitting every line in 32-pixel chunks. If that was also used for these ending images, the core blitting operation would have taken ((12 + (3 × (320 / 32))) × 200 × 4) = 33,600 cycles, with not much more overhead for the surrounding row and bitplane loops. Sure, this doesn't factor in the whole infamous issue of VRAM being slow on PC-98, but the aforementioned 136,000 cycles don't even include any actual blitting either. And as you move up to later PC-98 models with Pentium CPUs, the gap between OUT and REP MOVSD only becomes larger. (Note that the page I linked above has a typo in the cycle count of REP MOVSD on Pentium CPUs: According to the original Intel Architecture and Programming Manual, it's 13+𝑛, not 3+𝑛.)
This difference explains why later games rarely use EGC-"accelerated" inter-page VRAM copies, and keep all of their larger images in main memory. It especially explains why TH04 and TH05 can get away with naively redrawing boss backdrop images on every frame.

In the end, the whole fact that ZUN did not define how long this image should be visible is enough for me to increment the game's overall bug counter. Who would have thought that looking at endings of all things would teach us a PC-98 performance lesson… Sure, optimizing TH01 already seemed promising just by looking at its bloated code, but I had no idea that its performance issues extended so far past that level.

That only leaves the common beginning part of all endings and a short main() function before we're done with FUUIN.EXE, and 98 functions until all of TH01 is decompiled! Next up: SinGyoku, who not only is the quickest boss to defeat in-game, but also comes with the least amount of code. See you very soon!