⮜ Blog

⮜ List of tags

Showing all posts tagged position-independence-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0118
Commits:
0bb5bc3...cbf14eb
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-, Ember2528
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ th02+ th04+ th05+ position-independence- hud+ blitting+ unused+

🎉 TH05 is finally fully position-independent! 🎉 To celebrate this milestone, -Tom- coded a little demo, which we recorded on both an emulator and on real PC-98 hardware:

For all the new people who are unfamiliar with PC-98 Touhou internals: Boss behavior is hardcoded into MAIN.EXE, rather than being scriptable via separate .ECL files like in Windows Touhou. That's what makes this kind of a big deal.


What does this mean?

You can now freely add or remove both data and code anywhere in TH05, by editing the ReC98 codebase, writing your mod in ASM or C/C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.

By extension, this also means that it's now theoretically possible to use a different compiler on the source code. But:

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely reverse-engineered yet, let alone decompiled. As the final PC-98 Touhou game, TH05 also happens to have the largest amount of actual ZUN-written ASM that can't ever be decompiled within ReC98's constraints of a legit source code reconstruction. But a lot of the originally-in-C code is also still in ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now. And while I have decompiled a bunch of functions, I selected them largely because they would help with PI (as requested by the backers), and not because they are particularly relevant to typical modding interests.

As a result, the code might also be a bit confusingly organized. There's quite a conflict between various goals there: On the one hand, I'd like to only have a single instance of every function shared with earlier games, as well as reduce ZUN's code duplication within a single game. On the other hand, this leads to quite a lot of code being scattered all over the place and then #include-pasted back together, except for the places where 📝 this doesn't work, and you'd have to use multiple translation units anyway… I'm only beginning to figure out the best structure here, and some more reverse-engineering attention surely won't hurt.

Also, keep in mind that the code still targets x86 Real Mode. To work effectively in this codebase, you'd need some familiarity with memory segmentation, and how to express it all in code. This tends to make even regular C++ development about an order of magnitude harder, especially once you want to interface with the remaining ASM code. That part made -Tom- struggle quite a bit with implementing his custom scripting language for the demo above. For now, he built that demo on quite a limited foundation – which is why he also chose to release neither the build nor the source publically for the time being.
So yeah, you're definitely going to need the TASM and Borland C++ manuals there.

tl;dr: We now know everything about this game's data, but not quite as much about this game's code.

So, how long until source ports become a realistic project?

You probably want to wait for 100% RE, which is when everything that can be decompiled has been decompiled.

Unless your target system is 16-bit Windows, in which case you could theoretically start right away. 📝 Again, this would be the ideal first system to port PC-98 Touhou to: It would require all the generic portability work to remove the dependency on PC-98 hardware, thus paving the way for a subsequent port to modern systems, yet you could still just drop in any undecompiled ASM.

Porting to IBM-compatible DOS would only be a harder and less universally useful version of that. You'd then simply exchange one architecture, with its idiosyncrasies and limits, for another, with its own set of idiosyncrasies and limits. (Unless, of course, you already happen to be intimately familiar with that architecture.) The fact that master.lib provides DOS/V support would have only mattered if ZUN consistently used it to abstract away PC-98 hardware at every single place in the code, which is definitely not the case.


The list of actually interesting findings in this push is, 📝 again, very short. Probably the most notable discovery: The low-level part of the code that renders Marisa's laser from her TH04 Illusion Laser shot type is still present in TH05. Insert wild mass guessing about potential beta version shot types… Oh, and did you know that the order of background images in the Extra Stage staff roll differs by character?

Next up: Finally driving up the RE% bar again, by decompiling some TH05 main menu code.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0117
Commits:
03048c3...0bb5bc3
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gaiji+ pipeline+ position-independence-

Wouldn't it be a bit disappointing to have TH05 completely position-independent, but have it still require hex-editing of the original ZUN.COM to mod its gaiji characters? As in, these custom "text" glyphs, available to the PC-98 text RAM:

Especially since we now even have a sprite converter… the lack of which was exactly 📝 what made rebuilding ZUN.COM not that worthwhile before. So, before the big release, let's get all the remaining ZUN.COM sub-binaries of TH04 and TH05 dumped into .ASM files, and re-assembled and linked during the build process.

This is also the moment in which Egor's 2018 reimplementation of O. Morikawa's comcstm finally gets to shine. Back then, I considered it too early to even bother with ZUN.COM and reimplementing the .COM wrapper that ZUN originally used to bundle multiple smaller executables into that single binary. But now that the time is right, it is nice to have that code, as it allowed me to get these rebuilds done in half a push. Otherwise, it would have surely required one or two dedicated ones.

Since we like correctness here, newly dumped ZUN code means that it also has to be included in the RE% baseline calculation. This is why TH04's and TH05's overall RE% bars have gone back a tiny bit… in case you remember how they previously looked like :tannedcirno: After all, I would like to figure out where all that memory allocated during TH04's and TH05's memory check is freed, if at all.


Alright, one half of a push left… Y'know, getting rid of those last few PI false positives is actually one of the most annoying chores in this project, and quite stressful as well: I have to convince myself that the remaining false positives are, in fact, not memory references, but with way too little time for in-depth RE and to denote what they are instead. In that situation, everyone (including myself!) is anticipating that PI goal, and no one is really interested in RE. (Well… that is, until they actually get to developing their mod. But more on that tomorrow. :onricdennat:) Which means that it boils down to quite some hasty, dumb, and superficial RE around those remaining numbers.

So, in the hope of making it less annoying for the other 4 games in the future, let's systematically cover the sources of those remaining false positives in TH05, over all games. I/O port accesses with either the port or the value in registers (and thus, no longer as an immediate argument to the IN or OUT instructions, which the PI counter can clearly ingore), palette color arithmetic, or heck, 0xFF constants that obviously just mean "-1" and are not a reference to offset 0xFF in the data segment. All of this, of course, once again had a way bigger effect on everything but an almost position-independent TH05… but hey, that's the sort of thing you reserve the "anything" pushes for. And that's also how we get some of the single biggest PI% gains we have seen so far, and will be seeing before the 100% PI mark. And yes, those will continue in the next push.

Alright! Big release tomorrow…

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0095
Commits:
57a8487...8ddb778
💰 Funded by:
Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th01+ position-independence- pc98+ thief+

🎉 TH01's OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE are now fully position-independent! 🎉

What does this mean?

You can now add any data or code to TH01's main menu or ending cutscenes, by simply editing the ReC98 source, writing your mod in ASM or C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses in OP and FUUIN have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.
As an example, the most popular TH01 mod idea, replacing MDRV2 with PMD, could now at least be prototyped and tested in OP.EXE, without having to worry about x86 instruction lengths.
📝 Check the video I made for the TH04/TH05 OP.EXE PI announcement for a basic overview of how to do that.

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely decompiled yet. The final high-level parts of both the main menu and the cutscenes are still ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now.
It's not that much more code though, and could quickly be covered in a few pushes if requested. Due to the plentiful monthly subscriptions, the shop will stay closed for regular orders until the end of June, but backers with outstanding contributions could request that now if they want to – simply drop me a mail. Otherwise, the "generic TH01 RE" money will continue to go towards the main game. That way, we'll have more substance to show once we do decide to decompile the rest of OP.EXE and FUUIN.EXE, and likely get some press coverage as a result.


Then again, we've been building up to this point over the last few pushes, and it only really needed a quick look over the remaining false positives. The majority of the time therefore went towards more PI in REIIDEN.EXE, where the bitplane pointers for .BOS files yielded some quite big gains. Couldn't really find any obvious reason why ZUN used two slighly different variations on loading and blitting those files, though… :onricdennat:

As the final function in this rather random push, we got TH01's hardware-powered scrolling function, used for screen shaking effects and the scrolling backgrounds at the start of the Final Boss stages. And while I tried to document all these I/O writes… it turned out that ZUN actually copied the entire function straight from the PC-9801 Programmers' Bible, with no changes. :zunpet: It's the setgsta() example function on page 150. Which is terribly suboptimal and bloated – all those integer divisions are really not how you'd write such code for a 16-bit compiler from the 90's…

And that gives us 60% PI overall, and 50% PI over all of TH01! Next up: More structures… and classes, even?

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0064
Commits:
80cec5b...9faa29a
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05+ menu+ position-independence-

🎉 TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE are now fully position-independent! 🎉

What does this mean?

You can now add any data or code to the main menus of the two games, by simply editing the ReC98 source, writing your mod in ASM or C/C++, and recompiling the code. Since all absolute memory addresses have now been converted to labels, this will work without causing any instability. See the position independence section in the FAQ for a more thorough explanation about why this was a problem.

What does this not mean?

The original ZUN code hasn't been completely reverse-engineered yet, let alone decompiled. Pretty much all of that is still ASM, which might make modding a bit inconvenient right now.

Since this push was otherwise pretty unremarkable, I made a video demonstrating a few basic things you can do with this:

Now, what to do for the last outstanding Touhou Patch Center push? Bullets, or resident structures? :thonk:

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0062
Commits:
1d6fbb8...f275e04
💰 Funded by:
Touhou Patch Center
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ player+ shot+ position-independence- animation+

Big gains, as expected, but not much to say about this one. With TH05 Reimu being way too easy to decompile after 📝 the shot control groundwork done in October, there was enough time to give the comprehensive PI false-positive treatment to two other sets of functions present in TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE. One of them, master.lib's super_*() functions, was used a lot in TH02, more than in any other game… I wonder how much more that game will progress without even focusing on it in particular.

Alright then! 100% PI for TH04's and TH05's OP.EXE upcoming… (Edit: Already got funding to cover this!)

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0059
Commits:
01de290...8b62780
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], -Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05+ pc98+ position-independence- uth05win+ meta+

With no feedback to 📝 last week's blog post, I assume you all are fine with how things are going? Alright then, another one towards position independence, with the same approach as before…

Since -Tom- wanted to learn something about how the PC-98 EGC is used in TH04 and TH05, I took a look at master.lib's egc_shift_*() functions. These simply do a hardware-accelerated memmove() of any VRAM region, and are used for screen shaking effects. Hover over the image below for the raw effect:

Then, I finally wanted to take a look at the bullet structures, but it required way too much reverse-engineering to even start within ¾ of a position independence push. Even with the help of uth05win – bullet handling was changed quite a bit from TH04 to TH05.

What I ultimately settled on was more raw, "boring" PI work based around an already known set of functions. For this one, I looked at vector construction… and this time, that actually made the games a little bit more position-independent, and wasn't just all about removing false positives from the calculation. This was one of the few sets of functions that would also apply to TH01, and it revealed just how chaotically that game was coded. This one commit shows three ways how ZUN stored regular 2D points in TH01:

  • "regularly", like in master.lib's Point structure (X first, Y second)
  • reversed, (Y first and X second), then obviously with two distinct variables declared next to each other
  • and with multiple points stored in a structure of arrays.

… yeah. But in more productive news, this did actually lay the groundwork for TH04 and TH05 bullet structures. Which might even be coming up within the next big, 5-push order from Touhou Patch Center? These are the priorities I got from them, let's see how close I can get!