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Showing all posts tagged portability-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0186, P0187, P0188
Commits:
a21ab3d...bab5634, bab5634...426a531, 426a531...e881f95
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, [Anonymous], nrook
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ boss+ portability- tcc+ master.lib+ bug+ marisa-4+ gengetsu+ score+

Did you know that moving on top of a boss sprite doesn't kill the player in TH04, only in TH05?

Screenshot of Reimu moving on top of Stage 6 Yuuka, demonstrating the lack of boss↔player collision in TH04
Yup, Reimu is not getting hit… yet.

That's the first of only three interesting discoveries in these 3 pushes, all of which concern TH04. But yeah, 3 for something as seemingly simple as these shared boss functions… that's still not quite the speed-up I had hoped for. While most of this can be blamed, again, on TH04 and all of its hardcoded complexities, there still was a lot of work to be done on the maintenance front as well. These functions reference a bunch of code I RE'd years ago and that still had to be brought up to current standards, with the dependencies reaching from 📝 boss explosions over 📝 text RAM overlay functionality up to in-game dialog loading.

The latter provides a good opportunity to talk a bit about x86 memory segmentation. Many aspiring PC-98 developers these days are very scared of it, with some even going as far as to rather mess with Protected Mode and DOS extenders just so that they don't have to deal with it. I wonder where that fear comes from… Could it be because every modern programming language I know of assumes memory to be flat, and lacks any standard language-level features to even express something like segments and offsets? That's why compilers have a hard time targeting 16-bit x86 these days: Doing anything interesting on the architecture requires giving the programmer full control over segmentation, which always comes down to adding the typical non-standard language extensions of compilers from back in the day. And as soon as DOS stopped being used, these extensions no longer made sense and were subsequently removed from newer tools. A good example for this can be found in an old version of the NASM manual: The project started as an attempt to make x86 assemblers simple again by throwing out most of the segmentation features from MASM-style assemblers, which made complete sense in 1996 when 16-bit DOS and Windows were already on their way out. But there was a point to all those features, and that's why ReC98 still has to use the supposedly inferior TASM.

Not that this fear of segmentation is completely unfounded: All the segmentation-related keywords, directives, and #pragmas provided by Borland C++ and TASM absolutely can be the cause of many weird runtime bugs. Even if the compiler or linker catches them, you are often left with confusing error messages that aged just as poorly as memory segmentation itself.
However, embracing the concept does provide quite the opportunity for optimizations. While it definitely was a very crazy idea, there is a small bit of brilliance to be gained from making proper use of all these segmentation features. Case in point: The buffer for the in-game dialog scripts in TH04 and TH05.

// Thanks to the semantics of `far` pointers, we only need a single 32-bit
// pointer variable for the following code.
extern unsigned char far *dialog_p;

// This master.lib function returns a `void __seg *`, which is a 16-bit
// segment-only pointer. Converting to a `far *` yields a full segment:offset
// pointer to offset 0000h of that segment.
dialog_p = (unsigned char far *)hmem_allocbyte(/* … */);

// Running the dialog script involves pointer arithmetic. On a far pointer,
// this only affects the 16-bit offset part, complete with overflow at 64 KiB,
// from FFFFh back to 0000h.
dialog_p += /* … */;
dialog_p += /* … */;
dialog_p += /* … */;

// Since the segment part of the pointer is still identical to the one we
// allocated above, we can later correctly free the buffer by pulling the
// segment back out of the pointer.
hmem_free((void __seg *)dialog_p);

If dialog_p was a huge pointer, any pointer arithmetic would have also adjusted the segment part, requiring a second pointer to store the base address for the hmem_free call. Doing that will also be necessary for any port to a flat memory model. Depending on how you look at it, this compression of two logical pointers into a single variable is either quite nice, or really, really dumb in its reliance on the precise memory model of one single architecture. :tannedcirno:


Why look at dialog loading though, wasn't this supposed to be all about shared boss functions? Well, TH04 unnecessarily puts certain stage-specific code into the boss defeat function, such as loading the alternate Stage 5 Yuuka defeat dialog before a Bad Ending, or initializing Gengetsu after Mugetsu's defeat in the Extra Stage.
That's TH04's second core function with an explicit conditional branch for Gengetsu, after the 📝 dialog exit code we found last year during EMS research. And I've heard people say that Shinki was the most hardcoded fight in PC-98 Touhou… Really, Shinki is a perfectly regular boss, who makes proper use of all internal mechanics in the way they were intended, and doesn't blast holes into the architecture of the game. Even within TH05, it's Mai and Yuki who rely on hacks and duplicated code, not Shinki.

The worst part about this though? How the function distinguishes Mugetsu from Gengetsu. Once again, it uses its own global variable to track whether it is called the first or the second time within TH04's Extra Stage, unrelated to the same variable used in the dialog exit function. But this time, it's not just any newly created, single-use variable, oh no. In a misguided attempt to micro-optimize away a few bytes of conventional memory, TH04 reserves 16 bytes of "generic boss state", which can (and are) freely used for anything a boss doesn't want to store in a more dedicated variable.
It might have been worth it if the bosses actually used most of these 16 bytes, but the majority just use (the same) two, with only Stage 4 Reimu using a whopping seven different ones. To reverse-engineer the various uses of these variables, I pretty much had to map out which of the undecompiled danmaku-pattern functions corresponds to which boss fight. In the end, I assigned 29 different variable names for each of the semantically different use cases, which made up another full push on its own.

Now, 16 bytes of wildly shared state, isn't that the perfect recipe for bugs? At least during this cursory look, I haven't found any obvious ones yet. If they do exist, it's more likely that they involve reused state from earlier bosses – just how the Shinki death glitch in TH05 is caused by reusing cheeto data from way back in Stage 4 – and hence require much more boss-specific progress.
And yes, it might have been way too early to look into all these tiny details of specific boss scripts… but then, this happened:

TH04 crashing to the DOS prompt in the Stage 4 Marisa fight, right as the last of her bits is destroyed

Looks similar to another screenshot of a crash in the same fight that was reported in December, doesn't it? I was too much in a hurry to figure it out exactly, but notice how both crashes happen right as the last of Marisa's four bits is destroyed. KirbyComment has suspected this to be the cause for a while, and now I can pretty much confirm it to be an unguarded division by the number of on-screen bits in Marisa-specific pattern code. But what's the cause for Kurumi then? :thonk:
As for fixing it, I can go for either a fast or a slow option:

  1. Superficially fixing only this crash will probably just take a fraction of a push.
  2. But I could also go for a deeper understanding by looking at TH04's version of the 📝 custom entity structure. It not only stores the data of Marisa's bits, but is also very likely to be involved in Kurumi's crash, and would get TH04 a lot closer to 100% PI. Taking that look will probably need at least 2 pushes, and might require another 3-4 to completely decompile Marisa's fight, and 2-3 to decompile Kurumi's.

OK, now that that's out of the way, time to finish the boss defeat function… but not without stumbling over the third of TH04's quirks, relating to the Clear Bonus for the main game or the Extra Stage:

And after another few collision-related functions, we're now truly, finally ready to decompile bosses in both TH04 and TH05! Just as the anything funds were running out… :onricdennat: The remaining ¼ of the third push then went to Shinki's 32×32 ball bullets, rounding out this delivery with a small self-contained piece of the first TH05 boss we're probably going to look at.

Next up, though: I'm not sure, actually. Both Shinki and Elis seem just a little bit larger than the 2¼ or 4 pushes purchased so far, respectively. Now that there's a bunch of room left in the cap again, I'll just let the next contribution decide – with a preference for Shinki in case of a tie. And if it will take longer than usual for the store to sell out again this time (heh), there's still the 📝 PC-98 text RAM JIS trail word rendering research waiting to be documented.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0182, P0183
Commits:
313450f...1e2c7ad, 1e2c7ad...f9d983e
💰 Funded by:
Lmocinemod, [Anonymous], Yanga
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th03+ pc98+ gameplay+ player+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ portability- mod+

Been 📝 a while since we last looked at any of TH03's game code! But before that, we need to talk about Y coordinates.

During TH03's MAIN.EXE, the PC-98 graphics GDC runs in its line-doubled 640×200 resolution, which gives the in-game portion its distinctive stretched low-res look. This lower resolution is a consequence of using 📝 Promisence Soft's SPRITE16 driver: Its performance simply stems from the fact that it expects sprites to be stored in the bottom half of VRAM, which allows them to be blitted using the same EGC-accelerated VRAM-to-VRAM copies we've seen again and again in all other games. Reducing the visible resolution also means that the sprites can be stored on both VRAM pages, allowing the game to still be double-buffered. If you force the graphics chip to run at 640×400, you can see them:

TH03's VRAM at regular line-doubled 640×200 resolutionTH03's VRAM at full 640×400 resolution, including the SPRITE16 sprite areaTH03's text layer during an in-game round.
The full VRAM contents during TH03's in-game portion, as seen when forcing the system into a 640×400 resolution.

Note that the text chip still displays its overlaid contents at 640×400, which means that TH03's in-game portion technically runs at two resolutions at the same time.

But that means that any mention of a Y coordinate is ambiguous: Does it refer to undoubled VRAM pixels, or on-screen stretched pixels? Especially people who have known about the line doubling for years might almost expect technical blog posts on this game to use undoubled VRAM coordinates. So, let's introduce a new formatting convention for both on-screen 640×400 and undoubled 640×200 coordinates, and always write out both to minimize the confusion.


Alright, now what's the thing gonna be? The enemy structure is highly overloaded, being used for enemies, fireballs, and explosions with seemingly different semantics for each. Maybe a bit too much to be figured out in what should ideally be a single push, especially with all the functions that would need to be decompiled? Bullet code would be easier, but not exactly single-push material either. As it turns out though, there's something more fundamental left to be done first, which both of these subsystems depend on: collision detection!

And it's implemented exactly how I always naively imagined collision detection to be implemented in a fixed-resolution 2D bullet hell game with small hitboxes: By keeping a separate 1bpp bitmap of both playfields in memory, drawing in the collidable regions of all entities on every frame, and then checking whether any pixels at the current location of the player's hitbox are set to 1. It's probably not done in the other games because their single data segment was already too packed for the necessary 17,664 bytes to store such a bitmap at pixel resolution, and 282,624 bytes for a bitmap at Q12.4 subpixel resolution would have been prohibitively expensive in 16-bit Real Mode DOS anyway. In TH03, on the other hand, this bitmap is doubly useful, as the AI also uses it to elegantly learn what's on the playfield. By halving the resolution and only tracking tiles of 2×2 / 2×1 pixels, TH03 only requires an adequate total of 6,624 bytes of memory for the collision bitmaps of both playfields.

So how did the implementation not earn the good-code tag this time? Because the code for drawing into these bitmaps is undecompilable hand-written x86 assembly. :zunpet: And not just your usual ASM that was basically compiled from C and then edited to maybe optimize register allocation and maybe replace a bunch of local variables with self-modifying code, oh no. This code is full of overly clever bit twiddling, abusing the fact that the 16-bit AX, BX, CX, and DX registers can also be accessed as two 8-bit registers, calculations that change the semantic meaning behind the value of a register, or just straight-up reassignments of different values to the same small set of registers. Sure, in some way it is impressive, and it all does work and correctly covers every edge case, but come on. This could have all been a lot more readable in exchange for just a few CPU cycles.

What's most interesting though are the actual shapes that these functions draw into the collision bitmap. On the surface, we have:

  1. vertical slopes at any angle across the whole playfield; exclusively used for Chiyuri's diagonal laser EX attack
  2. straight vertical lines, with a width of 1 tile; exclusively used for the 2×2 / 2×1 hitboxes of bullets
  3. rectangles at arbitrary sizes

But only 2) actually draws a full solid line. 1) and 3) are only ever drawn as horizontal stripes, with a hardcoded distance of 2 vertical tiles between every stripe of a slope, and 4 vertical tiles between every stripe of a rectangle. That's 66-75% of each rectangular entity's intended hitbox not actually taking part in collision detection. Now, if player hitboxes were ≤ 6 / 3 pixels, we'd have one possible explanation of how the AI can "cheat", because it could just precisely move through those blank regions at TAS speeds. So, let's make this two pushes after all and tell the complete story, since this is one of the more interesting aspects to still be documented in this game.


And the code only gets worse. :godzun: While the player collision detection function is decompilable, it might as well not have been, because it's just more of the same "optimized", hard-to-follow assembly. With the four splittable 16-bit registers having a total of 20 different meanings in this function, I would have almost preferred self-modifying code…

In fact, it was so bad that it prompted some maintenance work on my inline assembly coding standards as a whole. Turns out that the _asm keyword is not only still supported in modern Visual Studio compilers, but also in Clang with the -fms-extensions flag, and compiles fine there even for 64-bit targets. While that might sound like amazing news at first ("awesome, no need to rewrite this stuff for my x86_64 Linux port!"), you quickly realize that almost all inline assembly in this codebase assumes either PC-98 hardware, segmented 16-bit memory addressing, or is a temporary hack that will be removed with further RE progress.
That's mainly because most of the raw arithmetic code uses Turbo C++'s register pseudovariables where possible. While they certainly have their drawbacks, being a non-standard extension that's not supported in other x86-targeting C compilers, their advantages are quite significant: They allow this code to stay in the same language, and provide slightly more immediate portability to any other architecture, together with 📝 readability and maintainability improvements that can get quite significant when combined with inlining:

// This one line compiles to five ASM instructions, which would need to be
// spelled out in any C compiler that doesn't support register pseudovariables.
// By adding typed aliases for these registers via `#define`, this code can be
// both made even more readable, and be prepared for an easier transformation
// into more portable local variables.
_ES = (((_AX * 4) + _BX) + SEG_PLANE_B);

However, register pseudovariables might cause potential portability issues as soon as they are mixed with inline assembly instructions that rely on their state. The lazy way of "supporting pseudo-registers" in other compilers would involve declaring the full set as global variables, which would immediately break every one of those instances:

_DI = 0;
_AX = 0xFFFF;

// Special x86 instruction doing the equivalent of
//
// 	*reinterpret_cast(MK_FP(_ES, _DI)) = _AX;
// 	_DI += sizeof(uint16_t);
//
// Only generated by Turbo C++ in very specific cases, and therefore only
// reliably available through inline assembly.
asm { movsw; }

What's also not all too standardized, though, are certain variants of the asm keyword. That's why I've now introduced a distinction between the _asm keyword for "decently sane" inline assembly, and the slightly less standard asm keyword for inline assembly that relies on the contents of pseudo-registers, and should break on compilers that don't support them.
So yeah, have some minor portability work in exchange for these two pushes not having all that much in RE'd content.

With that out of the way and the function deciphered, we can confirm the player hitboxes to be a constant 8×8 / 8×4 pixels, and prove that the hit stripes are nothing but an adequate optimization that doesn't affect gameplay in any way.


And what's the obvious thing to immediately do if you have both the collision bitmap and the player hitbox? Writing a "real hitbox" mod, of course:

  1. Reorder the calls to rendering functions so that player and shot sprites are rendered after bullets
  2. Blank out all player sprite pixels outside an 8×8 / 8×4 box around the center point
  3. After the bullet rendering function, turn on the GRCG in RMW mode and set the tile register set to the background color
  4. Stretch the negated contents of collision bitmap onto each playfield, leaving only collidable pixels untouched
  5. Do the same with the actual, non-negated contents and a white color, for extra contrast against the background. This also makes sure to show any collidable areas whose sprite pixels are transparent, such as with the moon enemy. (Yeah, how unfair.) Doing that also loses a lot of information about the playfield, such as enemy HP indicated by their color, but what can you do:
A decently busy TH03 in-game frame.The underlying content of the collision bitmap, showing off all three different shapes together with the player hitboxes.
A decently busy TH03 in-game frame and its underlying collision bitmap, showing off all three different collision shapes together with the player hitboxes.

2022-02-18-TH03-real-hitbox.zip The secret for writing such mods before having reached a sufficient level of position independence? Put your new code segment into DGROUP, past the end of the uninitialized data section. That's why this modded MAIN.EXE is a lot larger than you would expect from the raw amount of new code: The file now actually needs to store all these uninitialized 0 bytes between the end of the data segment and the first instruction of the mod code – normally, this number is simply a part of the MZ EXE header, and doesn't need to be redundantly stored on disk. Check the th03_real_hitbox branch for the code.

And now we know why so many "real hitbox" mods for the Windows Touhou games are inaccurate: The games would simply be unplayable otherwise – or can you dodge rapidly moving 2×2 / 2×1 blocks as an 8×8 / 8×4 rectangle that is smaller than your shot sprites, especially without focused movement? I can't. :tannedcirno: Maybe it will feel more playable after making explosions visible, but that would need more RE groundwork first.
It's also interesting how adding two full GRCG-accelerated redraws of both playfields per frame doesn't significantly drop the game's frame rate – so why did the drawing functions have to be micro-optimized again? It would be possible in one pass by using the GRCG's TDW mode, which should theoretically be 8× faster, but I have to stop somewhere. :onricdennat:

Next up: The final missing piece of TH04's and TH05's bullet-moving code, which will include a certain other type of projectile as well.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0134
Commits:
1d5db71...a6eed55
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th05+ blitting+ portability- micro-optimization+ jank+ tasm+ tcc+

Technical debt, part 5… and we only got TH05's stupidly optimized .PI functions this time?

As far as actual progress is concerned, that is. In maintenance news though, I was really hyped for the #include improvements I've mentioned in 📝 the last post. The result: A new x86real.h file, bundling all the declarations specific to the 16-bit x86 Real Mode in a smaller file than Turbo C++'s own DOS.H. After all, DOS is something else than the underlying CPU. And while it didn't speed up build times quite as much as I had hoped, it now clearly indicates the x86-specific parts of PC-98 Touhou code to future port authors.

After another couple of improvements to parameter declaration in ASM land, we get to TH05's .PI functions… and really, why did ZUN write all of them in ASM? Why (re)declare all the necessary structures and data in ASM land, when all these functions are merely one layer of abstraction above master.lib, which does all the actual work?
I get that ZUN might have wanted masked blitting to be faster, which is used for the fade-in effect seen during TH05's main menu animation and the ending artwork. But, uh… he knew how to modify master.lib. In fact, he did already modify the graph_pack_put_8() function used for rendering a single .PI image row, to ignore master.lib's VRAM clipping region. For this effect though, he first blits each row regularly to the invisible 400th row of VRAM, and then does an EGC-accelerated VRAM-to-VRAM blit of that row to its actual target position with the mask enabled. It would have been way more efficient to add another version of this function that takes a mask pattern. No amount of REP MOVSW is going to change the fact that two VRAM writes per line are slower than a single one. Not to mention that it doesn't justify writing every other .PI function in ASM to go along with it…
This is where we also find the most hilarious aspect about this: For most of ZUN's pointless micro-optimizations, you could have maybe made the argument that they do save some CPU cycles here and there, and therefore did something positive to the final, PC-98-exclusive result. But some of the hand-written ASM here doesn't even constitute a micro-optimization, because it's worse than what you would have got out of even Turbo C++ 4.0J with its 80386 optimization flags! :zunpet:

At least it was possible to "decompile" 6 out of the 10 functions here, making them easy to clean up for future modders and port authors. Could have been 7 functions if I also decided to "decompile" pi_free(), but all the C++ code is already surrounded by ASM, resulting in 2 ASM translation units and 2 C++ translation units. pi_free() would have needed a single translation unit by itself, which wasn't worth it, given that I would have had to spell out every single ASM instruction anyway.

void pascal pi_free(int slot)
{
	if(pi_buffers[slot]) {
		graph_pi_free(&pi_headers[slot], &pi_buffers[slot]);
		pi_buffers[slot] = NULL;
	}
}

There you go. What about this needed to be written in ASM?!?

The function calls between these small translation units even seemed to glitch out TASM and the linker in the end, leading to one CALL offset being weirdly shifted by 32 bytes. Usually, TLINK reports a fixup overflow error when this happens, but this time it didn't, for some reason? Mirroring the segment grouping in the affected translation unit did solve the problem, and I already knew this, but only thought of it after spending quite some RTFM time… during which I discovered the -lE switch, which enables TLINK to use the expanded dictionaries in Borland's .OBJ and .LIB files to speed up linking. That shaved off roughly another second from the build time of the complete ReC98 repository. The more you know… Binary blobs compiled with non-Borland tools would be the only reason not to use this flag.

So, even more slowdown with this 5th dedicated push, since we've still only repaid 41% of the technical debt in the SHARED segment so far. Next up: Part 6, which hopefully manages to decompile the FM and SSG channel animations in TH05's Music Room, and hopefully ends up being the final one of the slow ones.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0088, P0089
Commits:
97ce7b7...da6b856, da6b856...90252cc
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-, [Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05+ gameplay+ enemy+ hud+ animation+ portability-

As expected, we've now got the TH04 and TH05 stage enemy structure, finishing position independence for all big entity types. This one was quite straightfoward, as the .STD scripting system is pretty simple.

Its most interesting aspect can be found in the way timing is handled. In Windows Touhou, all .ECL script instructions come with a frame field that defines when they are executed. In TH04's and TH05's .STD scripts, on the other hand, it's up to each individual instruction to add a frame time parameter, anywhere in its parameter list. This frame time defines for how long this instruction should be repeatedly executed, before it manually advances the instruction pointer to the next one. From what I've seen so far, these instruction typically apply their effect on the first frame they run on, and then do nothing for the remaining frames.
Oh, and you can't nest the LOOP instruction, since the enemy structure only stores one single counter for the current loop iteration.

Just from the structure, the only innovation introduced by TH05 seems to have been enemy subtypes. These can be used to parametrize scripts via conditional jumps based on this value, as a first attempt at cutting down the need to duplicate entire scripts for similar enemy behavior. And thanks to TH05's favorable segment layout, this game's version of the .STD enemy script interpreter is even immediately ready for decompilation, in one single future push.

As far as I can tell, that now only leaves

until TH05's MAIN.EXE is completely position-independent.
Which, however, won't be all it needs for that 100% PI rating on the front page. And with that many false positives, it's quite easy to get lost with immediately reverse-engineering everything around them. This time, the rendering of the text dissolve circles, used for the stage and BGM title popups, caught my eye… and since the high-level code to handle all of that was near the end of a segment in both TH04 and TH05, I just decided to immediately decompile it all. Like, how hard could it possibly be? Sure, it needed another segment split, which was a bit harder due to all the existing ASM referencing code in that segment, but certainly not impossible…

Oh wait, this code depends on 9 other sets of identifiers that haven't been declared in C land before, some of which require vast reorganizations to bring them up to current consistency standards. Whoops! Good thing that this is the part of the project I'm still offering for free…
Among the referenced functions was tiles_invalidate_around(), which marks the stage background tiles within a rectangular area to be redrawn this frame. And this one must have had the hardest function signature to figure out in all of PC-98 Touhou, because it actually seems impossible. Looking at all the ways the game passes the center coordinate to this function, we have

  1. X and Y as 16-bit integer literals, merged into a single PUSH of a 32-bit immediate
  2. X and Y calculated and pushed independently from each other
  3. by-value copies of entire Point instances

Any single declaration would only lead to at most two of the three cases generating the original instructions. No way around separately declaring the function in every translation unit then, with the correct parameter list for the respective calls. That's how ZUN must have also written it.

Oh well, we would have needed to do all of this some time. At least there were quite a bit of insights to be gained from the actual decompilation, where using const references actually made it possible to turn quite a number of potentially ugly macros into wholesome inline functions.

But still, TH04 and TH05 will come out of ReC98's decompilation as one big mess. A lot of further manual decompilation and refactoring, beyond the limits of the original binary, would be needed to make these games portable to any non-PC-98, non-x86 architecture.
And yes, that includes IBM-compatible DOS – which, for some reason, a number of people see as the obvious choice for a first system to port PC-98 Touhou to. This will barely be easier. Sure, you'll save the effort of decompiling all the remaining original ASM. But even with master.lib's MASTER_DOSV setting, these games still very much rely on PC-98 hardware, with corresponding assumptions all over ZUN's code. You will need to provide abstractions for the PC-98's superimposed text mode, the gaiji, and planar 4-bit color access in general, exchanging the use of the PC-98's GRCG and EGC blitter chips with something else. At that point, you might as well port the game to one generic 640×400 framebuffer and away from the constraints of DOS, resulting in that Doom source code-like situation which made that game easily portable to every architecture to begin with. But ZUN just wasn't a John Carmack, sorry.

Or what do I know. I've never programmed for IBM-compatible DOS, but maybe ReC98's audience does include someone who is intimately familiar with IBM-compatible DOS so that the constraints aren't much of an issue for them? But even then, 16-bit Windows would make much more sense as a first porting target if you don't want to bother with that undecompilable ASM.

At least I won't have to look at TH04 and TH05 for quite a while now. :tannedcirno: The delivery delays have made it obvious that my life has become pretty busy again, probably until September. With a total of 9 TH01 pushes from monthly subscriptions now waiting in the backlog, the shop will stay closed until I've caught up with most of these. Which I'm quite hyped for!