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Showing all posts tagged th05- and jank-

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0149, P0150, P0151, P0152
Commits:
e1a26bb...05e4c4a, 05e4c4a...768251d, 768251d...4d24ca5, 4d24ca5...81fc861
💰 Funded by:
Blue Bolt, Ember2528, -Tom-, [Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05- gameplay+ bullet+ animation+ score+ glitch+ jank- waste+ micro-optimization+ tcc+ uth05win+

…or maybe not that soon, as it would have only wasted time to untangle the bullet update commits from the rest of the progress. So, here's all the bullet spawning code in TH04 and TH05 instead. I hope you're ready for this, there's a lot to talk about!

(For the sake of readability, "bullets" in this blog post refers to the white 8×8 pellets and all 16×16 bullets loaded from MIKO16.BFT, nothing else.)


But first, what was going on 📝 in 2020? Spent 4 pushes on the basic types and constants back then, still ended up confusing a couple of things, and even getting some wrong. Like how TH05's "bullet slowdown" flag actually always prevents slowdown and fires bullets at a constant speed instead. :tannedcirno: Or how "random spread" is not the best term to describe that unused bullet group type in TH04.
Or that there are two distinct ways of clearing all bullets on screen, which deserve different names:

Bullets are zapped at the end of most midboss and boss phases, and cleared everywhere else – most notably, during bombs, when losing a life, or as rewards for extends or a maximized Dream bonus. The Bonus!! points awarded for zapping bullets are calculated iteratively, so it's not trivial to give an exact formula for these. For a small number 𝑛 of bullets, it would exactly be 5𝑛³ - 10𝑛² + 15𝑛 points – or, using uth05win's (correct) recursive definition, Bonus(𝑛) = Bonus(𝑛-1) + 15𝑛² - 5𝑛 + 10. However, one of the internal step variables is capped at a different number of points for each difficulty (and game), after which the points only increase linearly. Hence, "semi-exponential".


On to TH04's bullet spawn code then, because that one can at least be decompiled. And immediately, we have to deal with a pointless distinction between regular bullets, with either a decelerating or constant velocity, and special bullets, with preset velocity changes during their lifetime. That preset has to be set somewhere, so why have separate functions? In TH04, this separation continues even down to the lowest level of functions, where values are written into the global bullet array. TH05 merges those two functions into one, but then goes too far and uses self-modifying code to save a grand total of two local variables… Luckily, the rest of its actual code is identical to TH04.

Most of the complexity in bullet spawning comes from the (thankfully shared) helper function that calculates the velocities of the individual bullets within a group. Both games handle each group type via a large switch statement, which is where TH04 shows off another Turbo C++ 4.0 optimization: If the range of case values is too sparse to be meaningfully expressed in a jump table, it usually generates a linear search through a second value table. But with the -G command-line option, it instead generates branching code for a binary search through the set of cases. 𝑂(log 𝑛) as the worst case for a switch statement in a C++ compiler from 1994… that's so cool. But still, why are the values in TH04's group type enum all over the place to begin with? :onricdennat:
Unfortunately, this optimization is pretty rare in PC-98 Touhou. It only shows up here and in a few places in TH02, compared to at least 50 switch value tables.

In all of its micro-optimized pointlessness, TH05's undecompilable version at least fixes some of TH04's redundancy. While it's still not even optimal, it's at least a decently written piece of ASM… if you take the time to understand what's going on there, because it certainly took quite a bit of that to verify that all of the things which looked like bugs or quirks were in fact correct. And that's how the code for this function ended up with 35% comments and blank lines before I could confidently call it "reverse-engineered"…
Oh well, at least it finally fixes a correctness issue from TH01 and TH04, where an invalid bullet group type would fill all remaining slots in the bullet array with identical versions of the first bullet.

Something that both games also share in these functions is an over-reliance on globals for return values or other local state. The most ridiculous example here: Tuning the speed of a bullet based on rank actually mutates the global bullet template… which ZUN then works around by adding a wrapper function around both regular and special bullet spawning, which saves the base speed before executing that function, and restores it afterward. :zunpet: Add another set of wrappers to bypass that exact tuning, and you've expanded your nice 1-function interface to 4 functions. Oh, and did I mention that TH04 pointlessly duplicates the first set of wrapper functions for 3 of the 4 difficulties, which can't even be explained with "debugging reasons"? That's 10 functions then… and probably explains why I've procrastinated this feature for so long.

At this point, I also finally stopped decompiling ZUN's original ASM just for the sake of it. All these small TH05 functions would look horribly unidiomatic, are identical to their decompiled TH04 counterparts anyway, except for some unique constant… and, in the case of TH05's rank-based speed tuning function, actually become undecompilable as soon as we want to return a C++ class to preserve the semantic meaning of the return value. Mainly, this is because Turbo C++ does not allow register pseudo-variables like _AX or _AL to be cast into class types, even if their size matches. Decompiling that function would have therefore lowered the quality of the rest of the decompiled code, in exchange for the additional maintenance and compile-time cost of another translation unit. Not worth it – and for a TH05 port, you'd already have to decompile all the rest of the bullet spawning code anyway!


The only thing in there that was still somewhat worth being decompiled was the pre-spawn clipping and collision detection function. Due to what's probably a micro-optimization mistake, the TH05 version continues to spawn a bullet even if it was spawned on top of the player. This might sound like it has a different effect on gameplay… until you realize that the player got hit in this case and will either lose a life or deathbomb, both of which will cause all on-screen bullets to be cleared anyway. So it's at most a visual glitch.

But while we're at it, can we please stop talking about hitboxes? At least in the context of TH04 and TH05 bullets. The actual collision detection is described way better as a kill delta of 8×8 pixels between the center points of the player and a bullet. You can distribute these pixels to any combination of bullet and player "hitboxes" that make up 8×8. 4×4 around both the player and bullets? 1×1 for bullets, and 8×8 for the player? All equally valid… or perhaps none of them, once you keep in mind that other entity types might have different kill deltas. With that in mind, the concept of a "hitbox" turns into just a confusing abstraction.

The same is true for the 36×44 graze box delta. For some reason, this one is not exactly around the center of a bullet, but shifted to the right by 2 pixels. So, a bullet can be grazed up to 20 pixels right of the player, but only up to 16 pixels left of the player. uth05win also spotted this… and rotated the deltas clockwise by 90°?!


Which brings us to the bullet updates… for which I still had to research a decompilation workaround, because 📝 P0148 turned out to not help at all? Instead, the solution was to lie to the compiler about the true segment distance of the popup function and declare its signature far rather than near. This allowed ZUN to save that ridiculous overhead of 1 additional far function call/return per frame, and those precious 2 bytes in the BSS segment that he didn't have to spend on a segment value. 📝 Another function that didn't have just a single declaration in a common header file… really, 📝 how were these games even built???

The function itself is among the longer ones in both games. It especially stands out in the indentation department, with 7 levels at its most indented point – and that's the minimum of what's possible without goto. Only two more notable discoveries there:

  1. Bullets are the only entity affected by Slow Mode. If the number of bullets on screen is ≥ (24 + (difficulty * 8) + rank) in TH04, or (42 + (difficulty * 8)) in TH05, Slow Mode reduces the frame rate by 33%, by waiting for one additional VSync event every two frames.
    The code also reveals a second tier, with 50% slowdown for a slightly higher number of bullets, but that conditional branch can never be executed :zunpet:
  2. Bullets must have been grazed in a previous frame before they can be collided with. (Note how this does not apply to bullets that spawned on top of the player, as explained earlier!)

Whew… When did ReC98 turn into a full-on code review?! 😅 And after all this, we're still not done with TH04 and TH05 bullets, with all the special movement types still missing. That should be less than one push though, once we get to it. Next up: Back to TH01 and Konngara! Now have fun rewriting the Touhou Wiki Gameplay pages 😛

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0139
Commits:
864e864...d985811
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th03+ th04+ th05- kaja+ jank- bug+ contribution-ideas+

Technical debt, part 10… in which two of the PMD-related functions came with such complex ramifications that they required one full push after all, leaving no room for the additional decompilations I wanted to do. At least, this did end up being the final one, completing all SHARED segments for the time being.


The first one of these functions determines the BGM and sound effect modes, combining the resident type of the PMD driver with the Option menu setting. The TH04 and TH05 version is apparently coded quite smartly, as PC-98 Touhou only needs to distinguish "OPN- / PC-9801-26K-compatible sound sources handled by PMD.COM" from "everything else", since all other PMD varieties are OPNA- / PC-9801-86-compatible.
Therefore, I only documented those two results returned from PMD's AH=09h function. I'll leave a comprehensive, fully documented enum to interested contributors, since that would involve research into basically the entire history of the PC-9800 series, and even the clearly out-of-scope PC-88VA. After all, distinguishing between more versions of the PMD driver in the Option menu (and adding new sprites for them!) is strictly mod territory.


The honor of being the final decompiled function in any SHARED segment went to TH04's snd_load(). TH04 contains by far the sanest version of this function: Readable C code, no new ZUN bugs (and still missing file I/O error handling, of course)… but wait, what about that actual file read syscall, using the INT 21h, AH=3Fh DOS file read API? Reading up to a hardcoded number of bytes into PMD's or MMD's song or sound effect buffer, 20 KiB in TH02-TH04, 64 KiB in TH05… that's kind of weird. About time we looked closer into this. :thonk:

Turns out that no, KAJA's driver doesn't give you the full 64 KiB of one memory segment for these, as especially TH05's code might suggest to anyone unfamiliar with these drivers. :zunpet: Instead, you can customize the size of these buffers on its command line. In GAME.BAT, ZUN allocates 8 KiB for FM songs, 2 KiB for sound effects, and 12 KiB for MMD files in TH02… which means that the hardcoded sizes in snd_load() are completely wrong, no matter how you look at them. :onricdennat: Consequently, this read syscall will overflow PMD's or MMD's song or sound effect buffer if the given file is larger than the respective buffer size.
Now, ZUN could have simply hardcoded the sizes from GAME.BAT instead, and it would have been fine. As it also turns out though, PMD has an API function (AH=22h) to retrieve the actual buffer sizes, provided for exactly that purpose. There is little excuse not to use it, as it also gives you PMD's default sizes if you don't specify any yourself.
(Unless your build process enumerates all PMD files that are part of the game, and bakes the largest size into both snd_load() and GAME.BAT. That would even work with MMD, which doesn't have an equivalent for AH=22h.)

What'd be the consequence of loading a larger file then? Well, since we don't get a full segment, let's look at the theoretical limit first.
PMD prefers to keep both its driver code and the data buffers in a single memory segment. As a result, the limit for the combined size of the song, instrument, and sound effect buffer is determined by the amount of code in the driver itself. In PMD86 version 4.8o (bundled with TH04 and TH05) for example, the remaining size for these buffers is exactly 45,555 bytes. Being an actually good programmer who doesn't blindly trust user input, KAJA thankfully validates the sizes given via the /M, /V, and /E command-line options before letting the driver reside in memory, and shuts down with an error message if they exceed 40 KiB. Would have been even better if he calculated the exact size – even in the current PMD version 4.8s from January 2020, it's still a hardcoded value (see line 8581).
Either way: If the file is larger than this maximum, the concrete effect is down to the INT 21h, AH=3Fh implementation in the underlying DOS version. DOS 3.3 treats the destination address as linear and reads past the end of the segment, DOS 5.0 and DOSBox-X truncate the number of bytes to not exceed the remaining space in the segment, and maybe there's even a DOS that wraps around and ends up overwriting the PMD driver code. In any case: You will overwrite what's after the driver in memory – typically, the game .EXE and its master.lib functions.

It almost feels like a happy accident that this doesn't cause issues in the original games. The largest PMD file in any of the 4 games, the -86 version of 幽夢 ~ Inanimate Dream, takes up 8,099 bytes, just under the 8,192 byte limit for BGM. For modders, I'd really recommend implementing this properly, with PMD's AH=22h function and error handling, once position independence has been reached.

Whew, didn't think I'd be doing more research into KAJA's drivers during regular ReC98 development! That's probably been the final time though, as all involved functions are now decompiled, and I'm unlikely to iterate over them again.


And that's it! Repaid the biggest chunk of technical debt, time for some actual progress again. Next up: Reopening the store tomorrow, and waiting for new priorities. If we got nothing by Sunday, I'm going to put the pending [Anonymous] pushes towards some work on the website.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0134
Commits:
1d5db71...a6eed55
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous]
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th05- blitting+ portability+ micro-optimization+ jank- tasm+ tcc+

Technical debt, part 5… and we only got TH05's stupidly optimized .PI functions this time?

As far as actual progress is concerned, that is. In maintenance news though, I was really hyped for the #include improvements I've mentioned in 📝 the last post. The result: A new x86real.h file, bundling all the declarations specific to the 16-bit x86 Real Mode in a smaller file than Turbo C++'s own DOS.H. After all, DOS is something else than the underlying CPU. And while it didn't speed up build times quite as much as I had hoped, it now clearly indicates the x86-specific parts of PC-98 Touhou code to future port authors.

After another couple of improvements to parameter declaration in ASM land, we get to TH05's .PI functions… and really, why did ZUN write all of them in ASM? Why (re)declare all the necessary structures and data in ASM land, when all these functions are merely one layer of abstraction above master.lib, which does all the actual work?
I get that ZUN might have wanted masked blitting to be faster, which is used for the fade-in effect seen during TH05's main menu animation and the ending artwork. But, uh… he knew how to modify master.lib. In fact, he did already modify the graph_pack_put_8() function used for rendering a single .PI image row, to ignore master.lib's VRAM clipping region. For this effect though, he first blits each row regularly to the invisible 400th row of VRAM, and then does an EGC-accelerated VRAM-to-VRAM blit of that row to its actual target position with the mask enabled. It would have been way more efficient to add another version of this function that takes a mask pattern. No amount of REP MOVSW is going to change the fact that two VRAM writes per line are slower than a single one. Not to mention that it doesn't justify writing every other .PI function in ASM to go along with it…
This is where we also find the most hilarious aspect about this: For most of ZUN's pointless micro-optimizations, you could have maybe made the argument that they do save some CPU cycles here and there, and therefore did something positive to the final, PC-98-exclusive result. But some of the hand-written ASM here doesn't even constitute a micro-optimization, because it's worse than what you would have got out of even Turbo C++ 4.0J with its 80386 optimization flags! :zunpet:

At least it was possible to "decompile" 6 out of the 10 functions here, making them easy to clean up for future modders and port authors. Could have been 7 functions if I also decided to "decompile" pi_free(), but all the C++ code is already surrounded by ASM, resulting in 2 ASM translation units and 2 C++ translation units. pi_free() would have needed a single translation unit by itself, which wasn't worth it, given that I would have had to spell out every single ASM instruction anyway.

void pascal pi_free(int slot)
{
	if(pi_buffers[slot]) {
		graph_pi_free(&pi_headers[slot], &pi_buffers[slot]);
		pi_buffers[slot] = NULL;
	}
}

There you go. What about this needed to be written in ASM?!?

The function calls between these small translation units even seemed to glitch out TASM and the linker in the end, leading to one CALL offset being weirdly shifted by 32 bytes. Usually, TLINK reports a fixup overflow error when this happens, but this time it didn't, for some reason? Mirroring the segment grouping in the affected translation unit did solve the problem, and I already knew this, but only thought of it after spending quite some RTFM time… during which I discovered the -lE switch, which enables TLINK to use the expanded dictionaries in Borland's .OBJ and .LIB files to speed up linking. That shaved off roughly another second from the build time of the complete ReC98 repository. The more you know… Binary blobs compiled with non-Borland tools would be the only reason not to use this flag.

So, even more slowdown with this 5th dedicated push, since we've still only repaid 41% of the technical debt in the SHARED segment so far. Next up: Part 6, which hopefully manages to decompile the FM and SSG channel animations in TH05's Music Room, and hopefully ends up being the final one of the slow ones.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0111, P0112
Commits:
8b5c146...4ef4c9e, 4ef4c9e...e447a2d
💰 Funded by:
[Anonymous], Blue Bolt
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05- gameplay+ player+ bomb+ boss+ ex-alice+ animation+ glitch+ jank-

Only one newly ordered push since I've reopened the store? Great, that's all the justification I needed for the extended maintenance delay that was part of these two pushes 😛

Having to write comments to explain whether coordinates are relative to the top-left corner of the screen or the top-left corner of the playfield has finally become old. So, I introduced distinct types for all the coordinate systems we typically encounter, applying them to all code decompiled so far. Note how the planar nature of PC-98 VRAM meant that X and Y coordinates also had to be different from each other. On the X side, there's mainly the distinction between the [0; 640] screen space and the corresponding [0; 80] VRAM byte space. On the Y side, we also have the [0; 400] screen space, but the visible area of VRAM might be limited to [0; 200] when running in the PC-98's line-doubled 640×200 mode. A VRAM Y coordinate also always implies an added offset for vertical scrolling.
During all of the code reconstruction, these types can only have a documenting purpose. Turning them into anything more than just typedefs to int, in order to define conversion operators between them, simply won't recompile into identical binaries. Modding and porting projects, however, now have a nice foundation for doing just that, and can entirely lift coordinate system transformations into the type system, without having to proofread all the meaningless int declarations themselves.


So, what was left in terms of memory references? EX-Alice's fire waves were our final unknown entity that can collide with the player. Decently implemented, with little to say about them.

That left the bomb animation structures as the one big remaining PI blocker. They started out nice and simple in TH04, with a small 6-byte star animation structure used for both Reimu and Marisa. TH05, however, gave each character her own animation… and what the hell is going on with Reimu's blue stars there? Nope, not going to figure this out on ASM level.

A decompilation first required some more bomb-related variables to be named though. Since this was part of a generic RE push, it made sense to do this in all 5 games… which then led to nice PI gains in anything but TH05. :tannedcirno: Most notably, we now got the "pulling all items to player" flag in TH04 and TH05, which is actually separate from bombing. The obvious cheat mod is left as an exercise to the reader.


So, TH05 bomb animations. Just like the 📝 custom entity types of this game, all 4 characters share the same memory, with the superficially same 10-byte structure.
But let's just look at the very first field. Seen from a low level, it's a simple struct { int x, y; } pos, storing the current position of the character-specific bomb animation entity. But all 4 characters use this field differently:

  • For Reimu's blue stars, it's the top-left position of each star, in the 12.4 fixed-point format. But unlike the vast majority of these values in TH04 and TH05, it's relative to the top-left corner of the screen, not the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel screen_x, screen_y; } topleft.
  • For Marisa's lasers, it's the center of each circle, as a regular 12.4 fixed-point coordinate, relative to the top-left corner of the playfield. Much better represented as struct { Subpixel x, y; } center.
  • For Mima's shrinking circles, it's the center of each circle in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } center.
  • For Yuuka's spinning heart, it's the top-left corner in regular pixel coordinates. Much better represented as struct { screen_x_t x; screen_y_t y; } topleft.
    And yes, singular. The game is actually smart enough to only store a single heart, and then create the rest of the circle on the fly. (If it were even smarter, it wouldn't even use this structure member, but oh well.)
Therefore, I decompiled it as 4 separate structures once again, bundled into an union of arrays.

As for Reimu… yup, that's some pointer arithmetic straight out of Jigoku* for setting and updating the positions of the falling star trails. :zunpet: While that certainly required several comments to wrap my head around the current array positions, the one "bug" in all this arithmetic luckily has no effect on the game.
There is a small glitch with the growing circles, though. They are spawned at the end of the loop, with their position taken from the star pointer… but after that pointer has already been incremented. On the last loop iteration, this leads to an out-of-bounds structure access, with the position taken from some unknown EX-Alice data, which is 0 during most of the game. If you look at the animation, you can easily spot these bugged circles, consistently growing from the top-left corner (0, 0) of the playfield:


After all that, there was barely enough remaining time to filter out and label the final few memory references. But now, TH05's MAIN.EXE is technically position-independent! 🎉 -Tom- is going to work on a pretty extensive demo of this unprecedented level of efficient Touhou game modding. For a more impactful effect of both the 100% PI mark and that demo, I'll be delaying the push covering the remaining false positives in that binary until that demo is done. I've accumulated a pretty huge backlog of minor maintenance issues by now…
Next up though: The first part of the long-awaited build system improvements. I've finally come up with a way of sanely accelerating the 32-bit build part on most setups you could possibly want to build ReC98 on, without making the building experience worse for the other few setups.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0063
Commits:
034ae4b...8dbb450
💰 Funded by:
-Tom-
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th04+ th05- file-format+ score+ waste+ jank-

Almost!

Just like most of the time, it was more sensible to cover GENSOU.SCR, the last structure missing in TH05's OP.EXE, everywhere it's used, rather than just rushing out OP.EXE position independence. I did have to look into all of the functions to fully RE it after all, and to find out whether the unused fields actually are unused. The only thing that kept this push from yielding even more above-average progress was the sheer inconsistency in how the games implemented the operations on this PC-98 equivalent of score*.dat:

  • OP.EXE declares two structure instances, for simultaneous access to both Reimu and Marisa scores. TH05 with its 4 playable characters instead uses a single one, and overwrites it successively for each character when drawing the high score menu – meaning, you'd only see Yuuka's scores when looking at the structure inside the rendered high score menu. However, it still declares the TH04 "Marisa" structure as a leftover… and also decodes it and verifies its checksum, despite nothing being ever loaded into it
  • MAIN.EXE uses a separate ASM implementation of the decoding and encoding functions :godzun:
  • TH05's MAIN.EXE also reimplements the basic loading functions in ASM – without the code to regenerate GENSOU.SCR with default data if the file is missing or corrupted. That actually makes sense, since any regeneration is already done in OP.EXE, which always has to load that file anyway to check how much has been cleared
  • However, there is a regeneration function in TH05's MAINE.EXE… which actually generates different default data: OP.EXE consistently sets Extra Stage records to Stage 1, while MAINE.EXE uses the same place-based stage numbering that both versions use for the regular ranks

Technically though, TH05's OP.EXE is position-independent now, and the rest are (should be? :tannedcirno:) merely false positives. However, TH04's is still missing another structure, in addition to its false positives. So, let's wait with the big announcement until the next push… which will also come with a demo video of what will be possible then.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0031, P0032, P0033
Commits:
dea40ad...9f764fa, 9f764fa...e6294c2, e6294c2...6cdd229
💰 Funded by:
zorg
🏷 Tags:
rec98+ th02+ th04+ th05- file-format+ hud+ score+ tasm+ tcc+ micro-optimization+ jank-

The glacial pace continues, with TH05's unnecessarily, inappropriately micro-optimized, and hence, un-decompilable code for rendering the current and high score, as well as the enemy health / dream / power bars. While the latter might still pass as well-written ASM, the former goes to such ridiculous levels that it ends up being technically buggy. If you enjoy quality ZUN code, it's definitely worth a read.

In TH05, this all still is at the end of code segment #1, but in TH04, the same code lies all over the same segment. And since I really wanted to move that code into its final form now, I finally did the research into decompiling from anywhere else in a segment.

Turns out we actually can! It's kinda annoying, though: After splitting the segment after the function we want to decompile, we then need to group the two new segments back together into one "virtual segment" matching the original one. But since all ASM in ReC98 heavily relies on being assembled in MASM mode, we then start to suffer from MASM's group addressing quirk. Which then forces us to manually prefix every single function call

  • from inside the group
  • to anywhere else within the newly created segment
with the group name. It's stupidly boring busywork, because of all the function calls you mustn't prefix. Special tooling might make this easier, but I don't have it, and I'm not getting crowdfunded for it.

So while you now definitely can request any specific thing in any of the 5 games to be decompiled right now, it will take slightly longer, and cost slightly more.
(Except for that one big segment in TH04, of course.)

Only one function away from the TH05 shot type control functions now!