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📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0226
Commits:
(Seihou) M0002...P0226
💰 Funded by:
Arandui, alp-bib
🏷 Tags:
seihou- sh01- meta+ cutscene+ unused+ file-format+
> "OK, TH03/TH04/TH05 cutscenes done, let's quickly finish the Touhou Patch Center MediaWiki upgrade. Just some scripting and verification left, it will be done so quickly that I don't even have to mention it on this blog" > Still not done after 3 weeks > Blocked by one final critical bug that really should be fixed upstream > Code reviewers are probably on vacation

And so, the year unfortunately ended with yet another slow month. During the MediaWiki upgrade, I was slowly decompiling the TH05 Sara fight on the side, but stumbled over one interesting but high-maintenance detail there that would really enhance her blog post. TH02 would need a lot of attention for the basic rendering calls as well…

…so let's end the year with Shuusou Gyoku instead, looking at its most critical issue in particular. As if that were the easy option here… :tannedcirno:
The game does not run properly on modern Windows systems due to its usage of the ancient DirectDraw APIs, with issues ranging from unbearable slowdown to glitched colors to the game not even starting at all. Thankfully, Shuusou Gyoku is not the only ancient Windows game affected by these issues, and people have developed a variety of generic DirectDraw wrappers and patches for playing such games on modern systems. Out of all these, DDrawCompat is one of the simpler solutions for Shuusou Gyoku in particular: Just drop its ddraw proxy DLL into the game directory, and the game will run as it's supposed to.
So let's just bundle that DLL with all my future Shuusou Gyoku releases then? That would have been the quick and dirty option, coming with several drawbacks:

Fortunately, I had the budget to dig a bit deeper and figure out what exactly DDrawCompat does to make Shuusou Gyoku work properly. Turns out that among all the hooks and patches, the game only needs the most central one: Enforcing a 32-bit display mode regardless of whatever lower bit depth the game requests natively, combined with converting the game's pixel buffer to 32-bit on the fly.
So does this mean that adding 32-bit to the game's list of supported bit depths is everything we have to do?

The new 32-bit rendering option in the Shuusou Gyoku P0226 build.
Interestingly, Shuusou Gyoku already saved the DirectDraw enumeration flag that indicates support for 32-bit display modes. The official version just did nothing with it.

Well, almost everything. Initially, this surprised me as well: With all the if statements checking for precise bit depths, you would think that supporting one more bit depth would be way harder in this code base. As it turned out though, these conditional branches are not really about 8-bit or 16-bit color for the most part, but instead differentiate between two very distinct rendering approaches:

Consequently, most of these branches deal with differences between these two approaches that couldn't be nicely abstracted away in pbg's renderer interface: Specific palette changes that are exclusive to "8-bit" mode, or certain entities and effects whose Direct3D draw calls in "16-bit" mode require tailor-made approximations for the "8-bit" mode. Since our new 32-bit mode is equivalent to the 16-bit mode in all of these branches, I only needed to replace the raw number comparisons with more meaningful method calls.

That only left a very small number of 2D raster effects that directly write to or read from DirectDraw surface memory, and therefore do need to know the bit size of each pixel. Thanks to std::variant and std::visit(), adding 32-bit support becomes trivial here: By rewriting the code in a generic manner that derives all offsets from the template type, you only have to say hey, I'd like to have 32-bit as well, and C++ will automatically instantiate correct 32-bit variants of all bit depth-dependent code snippets.
There are only three features in the entire game that access pixel buffers this way: a color key retrieval function, the lens ball animation on the logo screen, and… the ending staff roll? Sure, the text sprites fade in and out, but so does the picture next to it, using Direct3D alpha blending or palette color ramping depending on the current rendering mode. Instead, the only reason why these sprites directly access their pixel buffer is… an unused and pretty wild spiral effect. 😮 It's still part of the code, and only doesn't show up because the parameters that control its timing were commented out before release:

They probably considered it too wild for the mood of this ending.
The main ending text was the only remaining issue of mojibake present in my previous Shuusou Gyoku builds, and is now fixed as well. Windows can render Shift-JIS text via GDI even outside Japanese locale, but only when explicitly selecting a font that supports the SHIFTJIS_CHARSET, and the game simply didn't select any font for rendering this text. Thus, GDI fell back onto its default font, which obviously is only guaranteed to support the SHIFTJIS_CHARSET if your system locale is set to Japanese. This is why the font in the original game might look different between systems. For my build, I chose the font that would appear on a clean Windows installation – a basic 400-weighted MS Gothic at font size 16, which is already used all throughout the game.

Alright, 32-bit mode complete, let's set it as the default if possible… and break compatibility to the original 秋霜CFG.DAT format in the process? When validating this file, the original game only allows the originally supported 8-bit or 16-bit modes. Setting the BitDepth field to any other value causes the entire file to be reset to its defaults, re-locking the Extra Stage in the process. :onricdennat:
Introducing a backward-compatible version system for 秋霜CFG.DAT was beyond the scope of this push. Changing the validation to a per-field approach was a good small first step to take though. The new build no longer validates the BitDepth field against a fixed list, but against the actually supported bit depths on your system, picking a different supported one if necessary. With the original approach, this would have caused your entire configuration to fail the validation check. Instead, you can now safely update to the new build without losing your option settings, or your previously unlocked access to the Extra Stage.
Side note: The validation limit for starting bombs is off by one, and the one for starting lives check is off by two. By modifying 秋霜CFG.DAT, you could theoretically get new games to start with 7 lives and 3 bombs… if you then calculate a correct checksum for your hacked config file, that is. 🧑‍💻

Interestingly, DirectDraw doesn't even indicate support for 8-bit or 16-bit color on systems that are affected by the initially mentioned issues. Therefore, these issues are not the fault of DirectDraw, but of Shuusou Gyoku, as the original release requested a bit depth that it has even verified to be unsupported. Unfortunately, Windows sides with Sim City Shuusou Gyoku here: If you previously experimented with the Windows app compatibility settings, you might have ended up with the DWM8And16BitMitigation flag assigned to the full file path of your Shuusou Gyoku executable in either

As the term mitigation suggests, these modes are (poorly) emulated, which is exactly what causes the issues with this game in the first place. Sure, this might be the lesser evil from the point of view of an operating system: If you don't have the budget for a full-blown DDrawCompat-style DirectDraw wrapper, you might consider it better for users to have the game run poorly than have it fail at startup due to incorrect API usage. Controlling this with a flag that sticks around for future runs of a binary is definitely suboptimal though, especially given how hard it is to programmatically remove this flag within the binary itself. It only adds additional complexity to the ideal clean upgrade path.
So, make sure to check your registry and manually remove these flags for the time being. Without them, the new Config → Graphic menu will correctly prevent you from selecting anything else but 32-bit on modern Windows.


After all that, there was just enough time left in this push to implement basic locale independence, as requested by the Seihou development Discord group, without looking into automatic fixes for previous mojibake filenames yet. Combining std::filesystem::path with the native Win32 API should be straightforward and bloat-free, especially with all the abstractions I've been building, right?
Well, turns out that std::filesystem::path does not actually meet my expectations. At least as long as it's not constexpr-enabled, because you still get the unfortunate conversion from narrow to wide encoding at runtime, even for globals with static storage duration. That brings us back to writing our path abstraction in terms of the regular std::string and std::wstring containers, which at least allow us to enforce the respective encoding at compile time. Even std::string_view only adds to the complexity here, as its strings are never inherently null-terminated, which is required by both the POSIX and Win32 APIs. Not to mention dynamic filenames: C++20's std::format() would be the obvious idiomatic choice here, but using it almost doubles the size of the compiled binary… 🤮
In the end, the most bloat-free way of implementing C++ file I/O in 2023 is still the same as it was 30 years ago: Call system APIs, roll a custom abstraction that conditionally uses the L prefix, and pass around raw pointers. And if you need a dynamic filename, just write the dynamic characters into arrays at fixed positions. Just as PC-98 Touhou used to do… :zunpet:
Oh, and the game's window also uses a Unicode title bar now.

And that's it for this push! Make sure to rename your configuration (秋霜CFG.DAT), score (秋霜SC.DAT), and replay (秋霜りぷ*.DAT) filenames if you were previously running the game on a non-Japanese locale, and then grab the new build:

:sh01: Shuusou Gyoku P0226

With that, we've got the most critical bugs out of the way, but the number of potential fixes and features in Shuusou Gyoku has only increased. Looking forward to what's next in this apparent Seihou revolution, later in 2023!

Next up: Starting the new year with all my plans hopefully working out for once. TH05 Sara very soon, ZMBV code review afterward, low-hanging fruit of the TH01 Anniversary Edition after that, and then kicking off TH02 with a bunch of low-level blitting code.

📝 Posted:
🚚 Summary of:
P0217
Commits:
(Seihou) pbg...P0217
💰 Funded by:
Arandui
🏷 Tags:
seihou- sh01- build-process+

First of all: This blog is now available as a web feed, in three different formats!

Thanks to handlerug for implementing and PR'ing the feature in a very clean way. That makes at least two people I know who wanted to see feed support, so there are probably a few more out there.


So, Shuusou Gyoku. pbg released the original source code for the first two Seihou games back in February 2019, but notably removed the crucial decompression code for the original packfiles due to… various unspecified reasons, considerations, and implications. :thonk: This vague language and subsequent rejection of a pull request to add these features back in were probably the main reasons why no one has publicly done anything with this codebase since.

The only other fork I know about is Priw8's private fork from 2020, but only because WishMakers informed me about it shortly after this push was funded. Both of them might also contribute some features to my fork in the future if their time allows it.
In this fork, Priw8 replaced packfile decompression with raw reads from directories with the pre-extracted contents of all the .DAT files. This works for playing the game, but there are actually two more things that require the original packfile code:

We can surely implement our own simple and uncompressed formats for these things, but it's not the idea to build all future Shuusou Gyoku features on top of a replay-incompatible fork. So, what do we do? On the one hand, pbg expressed the clear wish to not include data reverse-engineered from the original binary. On the other hand, he released the code under the MIT license, which allows us to modify the code and distribute the results in any way we wish.
So, let's meet in the middle, and go for a clean-room implementation of the missing features as indicated by their usage, without looking at either the original binary or wangqr's reverse-engineered code.


With incremental rebuilds being broken in the latest Visual Studio project files as well, it made sense to start from scratch on pbg's last commit. Of course, I can't pass up a chance to use 📝 Tup, my favorite build system for every project I'm the main developer of. It might not fit Shuusou Gyoku as well as it fits ReC98, but let's see whether it would be reasonable at all…

… and it's actually not too bad! Modern Visual Studio makes this a bit harder than it should be with all the intermediate build artifacts you have to keep track of. In the end though, it's still only 70 lines of Lua to have a nice abstraction for both Debug and Release builds. With this layer underneath, the actual Shuusou Gyoku-specific part can be expressed as succinctly as in any other modern build system, while still making every compiler flag explicit. It might be slightly slower than a traditional .vcxproj build due to launching one cl.exe process per translation unit, but the result is way more reliable and trustworthy compared to anything that involves Visual Studio project files. This simplicity paves the way for expanding the build process to multiple steps, and doing all the static checking on translation strings that I never got to do for thcrap-based patches. Heck, I might even compile all future translations directly into the binary…

Every C++ build system will invariably be hated by someone, so I'd say that your goal should always be to simplify the actually important parts of your build enough to allow everyone else to easily adapt it to their favorite system. This Tupfile definitely does a better job there than your average .vcxproj file – but if you still want such a thing (or, gasp, 🤮 CMake project files 🤮) for better Visual Studio IDE integration, you should have no problem generating them for yourself.
There might still be a point in doing that because that's the one part that unfortunately sucks about this approach. Visual Studio is horribly broken for any nonstandard C++ project even in 2022:

In both cases, IntelliSense doesn't work properly at all even if it appears to be configured correctly, and Tup's dependency tracking appeared to be weirdly cut off for the very final .PDB file. Interestingly though, using the big Visual Studio IDE for just debugging a binary via devenv bin/GIAN07.exe suddenly eliminates all the IntelliSense issues. Looks like there's a lot of essential information stored in the .PDB files that Visual Studio just refuses to read in any other context. :thonk:

But now compare that to Visual Studio Code: Open it from the x64_x86 Cross Tools Command Prompt via code ., launch a build or debug task, or browse the code with perfect IntelliSense. Three small configuration files and everything just works – heck, you even get the Tup progress bar in the terminal. It might be Electron bloatware and horribly slow at times, but Visual Studio Code has long outperformed regular Visual Studio in terms of non-debug functionality.


On to the compression algorithm then… and it's just textbook LZSS, with 13 bits for the offset of a back-reference and 4 bits for its length? Hardly a trade secret there. The hard parts there all come from unexpected inefficiencies in the bitstream format:

  1. Encoding back-references as offsets into an 8 KiB ring buffer dictionary means that the most straightforward implementation actually needs an 8 KiB array for the LZSS sliding window. This could have easily been done with zero additional memory if the offset was encoded as the difference to the current byte instead.
  2. The packfile format stores the uncompressed size of every file in its header, which is a good thing because you want to know in advance how much heap memory to allocate for a specific file. Nevertheless, the original game only stops reading bits from the packfile once it encountered a back-reference with an offset of 0. This means that the compressor not only has to write this technically unneeded back-reference to the end of the compressed bitstream, but also ignore any potential other longest back-reference with an offset of 0 within the file. The latter can easily happen with a ring buffer dictionary.

The original game used a single BIT_DEVICE class with mode flags for every combination of reading and writing memory buffers and on-disk files. Since that would have necessitated a lot of error checking for all (pseudo-)methods of this class, I wrote one dedicated small class for each one of these permutations instead. To further emphasize the clean-room property of this code, these use modern C++ memory ownership features: std::unique_ptr for the fixed-size read-only buffers we get from packfiles, std::vector for the newly compressed buffers where we don't know the size in advance, and std::span for a borrowed reference to an immutable region of memory that we want to treat as a bitstream. Definitely better than using the native Win32 LocalAlloc() and LocalFree() allocator, especially if we want to port the game away from Windows one day.

One feature I didn't use though: C++ fstreams, because those are trash. :tannedcirno: These days, they would seem to be the natural choice with the new std::filesystem::path type from C++17: Correctly constructed, you can pass that type to an fstream constructor and gain both locale independence on Windows and portability to everything else, without writing any Windows-specific UTF-16 code. But even in a Release build, fstreams add ~100 KB of locale-related bloat to the .EXE which adds no value for just reading binary files. That's just too embarrassing if you look at how much space the rest of the game takes up. Writing your own platform layer that calls the Win32 CreateFileW(), ReadFile(), and WriteFile() API functions is apparently still the way to go even in 2022. And with std::filesystem::path still being a welcome addition to C++, it's not too much code to write either.

This gets us file format compatibility with the original release… and a crash as soon as the ending starts, but only in Release mode? As it turns out, this crash is caused by an out-of-bounds array access bug that was present even in the original game, and only turned into a crash now because the optimizer in modern Visual Studio versions reorders static data. As a result, the 6-element pFontInfo array got placed in front of an ECL-related counter variable that then got corrupted by the write to the 7th element, which subsequently crashed the game with a read access to previously deallocated danmaku script data. That just goes to show that these technical bugs are important and worth fixing even if they don't cause issues in the original game. Who knows how many of these will turn into crashes once we get to porting PC-98 Touhou?


So here we go, a new build of Shuusou Gyoku, compiled with Visual Studio 2022, and compatible with all original data formats:

:sh01: Shuusou Gyoku P0217

Inside the regular Shuusou Gyoku installation directory, this binary works as a full-fledged drop-in replacement for the original 秋霜玉.exe. It still has all of the original binary's problems though:

As well as some of its own:

So all in all, it's a strict downgrade at this point in time. :onricdennat: And more of a symbol that we can now start doing actual work on this game. Seihou has been a fun change of pace, and I hope that I get to do more work on the series. There is quite a lot to be done with Shuusou Gyoku alone, and the 21 GitHub issues I've opened are probably only scratching the surface.
However, all the required research for this one consumed more like 1⅔ pushes. Despite just one push being funded, it wouldn't have made sense to release the commits or this binary in any earlier state. To repay this debt, I'm going to put the next for Seihou towards the small code maintenance and performance tasks that I usually do for free, before doing any more feature and bugfix work. Next up: Improving video playback on the blog, and maybe delivering some microtransaction work on the side?